University of Oulu

Ruokamo, E., Laukkanen, M., Karhinen, S., Kopsakangas-Savolainen, M., & Svento, R. (2023). Innovators, followers and laggards in home solar PV: Factors driving diffusion in Finland. In Energy Research & Social Science (Vol. 102, p. 103183). Elsevier BV.

Innovators, followers and laggards in home solar PV : factors driving diffusion in Finland

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Author: Ruokamo, Enni1,2; Laukkanen, Marita3,4; Karhinen, Santtu1,2;
Organizations: 1Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE), Oulu, Finland
2Department of Economics, Accounting and Finance, Oulu Business School, University of Oulu, Finland
3VATT Institute for Economic Research, Helsinki, Finland
4Tampere University, Faculty of Management and Business, Tampere, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.6 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-08-14


Generating electricity from solar energy is a way for households to participate in the ongoing transition to decarbonized and more decentralized energy systems. A large empirical literature has examined the drivers and barriers associated with household solar PV adoption. An emerging strand of this literature investigates what distinguishes earlier adopters from later adopters and non-adopters. However, there is yet limited understanding of the differences between earlier and later adopters, as few papers have applied formal statistical models to compare different customer segments. The present study addresses this gap. We examine how the factors that influence household solar PV choices differ between earlier adopters, potential adopters — households that have considered installing solar PV but have not yet done so — and non-adopters. We analyze these choices using rich data from a household-level survey conducted in Finland. The findings show that the adoption of solar PV is linked to a multitude of socio-demographic and financial factors and personal motivations. There are clear differences in the motives and perceptions of adopters, potential adopters, and non-adopters. Accounting for such differences between customer segments will help to better design and target public policy instruments and marketing campaigns that aim to incentivize and nudge households toward solar PV investments.

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Series: Energy research & social science
ISSN: 2214-6296
ISSN-L: 2214-6296
Volume: 102
Article number: 103183
DOI: 10.1016/j.erss.2023.103183
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 519 Social and economic geography
Funding: We wish to thank Caruna Ltd. for the collaboration. This work was supported by projects BC-DC Energy (314167), DeCarbon-Home (335252) and 2035Legitimacy (335560), all funded by the Strategic Research Council operating in connection with the Academy of Finland. In addition, the support from the Academy of Finland projects EcoRiver (324824), EasyDR (348100) and DigiDecarbon (348626) is acknowledged.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 314167
Detailed Information: 314167 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
335252 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
335560 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
324824 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
348100 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
348626 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Dataset Reference: The authors do not have permission to share data.
Copyright information: © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (