University of Oulu

Lähteenvuo M, Ahola-OlliA, SuokasK, et al. Cohort profile: SUPER-Finland – the Finnish study for hereditary mechanisms of psychotic disorders. BMJ Open 2023;13:e070710. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2022-070710

Cohort profile : SUPER-Finland – the Finnish study for hereditary mechanisms of psychotic disorders

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Author: Lähteenvuo, Markku1,2; Ahola-Olli, Ari2,3,4; Suokas, Kimmo5;
Organizations: 1Department of Forensic Psychiatry, University of Eastern Finland, Niuvanniemi Hospital, Kuopio, Finland
2Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
3Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
4Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
5Faculty of Social Sciences, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland
6Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland
7Department of Psychiatry, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland
8Psychiatric and Substance Abuse Services, City of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
9Department of Psychiatry, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
10Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland
11Department of Psychiatry, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
12Department of Psychiatry, TYKS Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland
13Department of Psychology and Logopedics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
14Mehiläinen Oy, Helsinki, Finland
15SleepWell Research Program, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
16Research Unit of Clinical Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
17Medical Research Centre Oulu, University Hospital of Oulu and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
18Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland
19Department of Psychiatry, The Pirkanmaa Wellbeing Services County, Tampere, Finland
20Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
21Department of Clinical Medicine (Psychiatry), Faculty of Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
22Department of Psychiatry, The Wellbeing Services County of Ostrobothnia, Vaasa, Finland
23Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
24Center for Psychiatry Research, Stockholm City Council, Stockholm, Sweden
25Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: BMJ, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-08-17


Purpose: SUPER-Finland is a large Finnish collection of psychosis cases. This cohort also represents the Finnish contribution to the Stanley Global Neuropsychiatric Genetics Initiative, which seeks to diversify genetic sample collection to include Asian, Latin American and African populations in addition to known population isolates, such as Finland.

Participants: 10 474 individuals aged 18 years or older were recruited throughout the country. The subjects have been genotyped with a genome-wide genotyping chip and exome sequenced. A subset of 897 individuals selected from known population sub-isolates were selected for whole-genome sequencing. Recruitment was done between November 2015 and December 2018.

Findings to date: 5757 (55.2%) had a diagnosis of schizophrenia, 944 (9.1%) schizoaffective disorder, 1612 (15.5%) type I or type II bipolar disorder, 532 (5.1 %) psychotic depression, 1047 (10.0%) other psychosis and for 530 (5.1%) self-reported psychosis at recruitment could not be confirmed from register data. Mean duration of schizophrenia was 22.0 years at the time of the recruitment. By the end of the year 2018, 204 of the recruited individuals had died. The most common cause of death was cardiovascular disease (n=61) followed by neoplasms (n=40). Ten subjects had psychiatric morbidity as the primary cause of death.

Future plans: Compare the effects of common variants, rare variants and copy number variations (CNVs) on severity of psychotic illness. In addition, we aim to track longitudinal course of illness based on nation-wide register data to estimate how phenotypic and genetic differences alter it.

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Series: BMJ open
ISSN: 2044-6055
ISSN-E: 2044-6055
ISSN-L: 2044-6055
Volume: 13
Issue: 4
Article number: e070710
DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2022-070710
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3124 Neurology and psychiatry
Funding: This work was supported by the Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research at Broad Institute (award/grant number is not applicable)
Copyright information: © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2023. This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. See: