University of Oulu

Aguilar, M., Cavasonza, L. A., Ambrosi, G., Arruda, L., Attig, N., Bagwell, C., Barao, F., Barrin, L., Bartoloni, A., Başeğmez-du Pree, S., Battiston, R., Behlmann, M., Belyaev, N., Berdugo, J., Bertucci, B., Bindi, V., Bollweg, K., Bolster, J., Borgia, B., … AMS Collaboration. (2023). Temporal structures in electron spectra and charge sign effects in galactic cosmic rays. Physical Review Letters, 130(16), 161001.

Temporal structures in electron spectra and charge sign effects in galactic cosmic rays

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Author: Aguilar, M.1; Cavasonza, L. Ali2,3; Ambrosi, G.4;
Arruda, L.5; Attig, N.6,7; Bagwell, C.8; Barao, F.5; Barrin, L.9; Bartoloni, A.10; Basegmez-du Pree, S.11; Battiston, R.12,13; Behlmann, M.8; Belyaev, N.8; Berdugo, J.1; Bertucci, B.4,14; Bindi, V.15; Bollweg, K.16; Bolster, J.8; Borgia, B.10,17; Boschini, M. J.18; Bourquin, M.19; Bueno, E. F.11; Burger, J.8; Burger, W. J.12; Burmeister, S.20; Cai, X. D.8; Capell, M.8; Casaus, J.1; Castellini, G.21; Cervelli, F.22; Chang, Y. H.23; Chen, G. M.24,25; Chen, G. R.26; Chen, H. S.24,25; Chen, Y.19,26; Cheng, L.26; Chou, H. Y.23; Chouridou, S.2,3; Choutko, V.8; Chung, C. H.2,3; Clark, C.8,16; Coignet, G.27; Consolandi, C.15; Contin, A.28,29; Corti, C.15; Cui, Z.30,26; Dadzie, K.8; Dass, A.12,13; Delgado, C.1; Della Torre, S.18; Demirkoez, M. B.31; Derome, L.32; Di Falco, S.22; Di Felice, V.33; Diaz, C.1; Dimiccoli, F.12; von Doetinchem, P.15; Dong, F.34; Donnini, F.4; Duranti, M.4; Egorov, A.8; Eline, A.8; Faldi, F.4,14; Feng, J.8; Fiandrini, E.4,14; Fisher, P.8; Formato, V.33; Freeman, C.15; Gamez, C.1; Garcia-Lopez, R. J.35,36; Gargiulo, C.9; Gast, H.2,3; Gervasi, M.18,37; Giovacchini, F.1; Gomez-Coral, D. M.15; Gong, J.34; Goy, C.27; Grabski, V.38; Grandi, D.18,37; Graziani, M.4,14; Guracho, A. N.10; Haino, S.23; Han, K. C.39; Hashmani, R. K.31; He, Z. H.40; Heber, B.20; Hsieh, T. H.8; Hu, J. Y.24,25; Incagli, M.22; Jang, W. Y.41; Jia, Yi8; Jinchi, H.39; Karagoez, G.31; Khiali, B.33; Kim, G. N.41; Kirn, Th.2,3; Kounina, O.8; Kounine, A.8; Koutsenko, V.8; Krasnopevtsev, D.8; Kuhlman, A.15; Kulemzin, A.8; La Vacca, G.18,37; Laudi, E.9; Laurenti, G.28; LaVecchia, G.8; Lazzizzera, I.12,13; Lee, H. T.42; Lee, S. C.23; Li, H. L.26; Li, J. Q.34; Li, M.2,3; Li, Q.26,34; Li, Q. Y.26; Li, S.2,3,24,25; Li, S. L.24,25; Li, J. H.30; Li, Z. H.24,25; Liang, J.30; Liang, M. J.24,25; Light, C.15; Lin, C. H.23; Lippert, T.6,7; Liu, J. H.43; Lu, S. Q.23; Lu, Y. S.24; Luebelsmeyer, K.2,3; Luo, J. Z.34; Luo, Xi26; Machate, F.2,3; Mana, C.1; Marin, J.1; Marquardt, J.20; Martin, T.8,16; Martinez, G.1; Masi, N.28; Maurin, D.32; Medvedeva, T.8; Menchaca-Rocha, A.38; Meng, Q.34; Mikhailov, V. V.; Molero, M.35,36; Mott, P.8,16; Mussolin, L.4,14; Negrete, J.15; Nikonov, N.2,3; Nozzoli, F.12; Ocampo-Peleteiro, J.1; Oliva, A.28; Orcinha, M.5; Palermo, M.15; Palmonari, F.28,29; Paniccia, M.19; Pashnin, A.8; Pauluzzi, M.4,14; Pensotti, S.18,37; Plyaskin, V.8; Pohl, M.19; Poluianov, S.44,45; Qin, X.8; Qu, Z. Y.26; Quadrani, L.28,29; Rancoita, P. G.18; Rapin, D.19; Conde, A. Reina28; Robyn, E.19; Rosier-Lees, S.27; Rozhkov, A.8; Rozza, D.18; Sagdeev, R.46; Schael, S.2,3; von Dratzig, A. Schultz2,3; Schwering, G.2,3; Seo, E. S.47; Shan, B. S.48; Siedenburg, T.2,3; Song, J. W.30; Song, X. J.26; Sonnabend, R.2,3; Strigari, L.10; Su, T.26; Sun, Q.30; Sun, Z. T.24,25; Tacconi, M.18,37; Tang, X. W.24; Tang, Z. C.24; Tian, J.33; Ting, Samuel C. C.8,9; Ting, S. M.8; Tomassetti, N.4,14; Torsti, J.49; Urban, T.8,16; Usoskin, I.44,45; Vagelli, V.4,50; Vainio, R.49; Valencia-Otero, M.51,52; Valente, E.10,17; Valtonen, E.49; Acosta, M. Vazquez35,36; Vecchi, M.11; Velasco, M.1; Vialle, J. P.27; Wang, C. X.30; Wang, L.43,30; Wang, L. Q.30; Wang, N. H.30; Wang, Q. L.43; Wang, S.15; Wang, X.8; Wang, Yu30; Wang, Z. M.26; Wei, J.19,26; Weng, Z. L.8; Wu, H.34; Xiong, R. Q.34; Xu, W.30,26; Yan, Q.8; Yang, Y.53; Yashin, I. I.; Yelland, A.8; Yi, H.34; Yu, Y. M.8; Yu, Z. Q.24; Zannoni, M.18,37; Zhang, C.24; Zhang, F.24,25; Zhang, F. Z.24,25; Zhang, J. H.34; Zhang, Z.8; Zhao, F.24,25; Zheng, C.26; Zheng, Z. M.48; Zhuang, H. L.24; Zhukov, V.2,3; Zichichi, A.28,29; Zuccon, P.12,13
Organizations: 1CIEMAT, Madrid 28040, Spain.
2Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 1, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
3Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, JARA FAME, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
4INFN, Sez Perugia, I-06100 Perugia, Italy.
5Lab Instrumentacao & Fis Expt Particulas LIP, P-1649003 Lisbon, Portugal.
6Julich Supercomp Ctr, D-52425 Julich, Germany.
7Res Ctr Julich, JARA FAME, D-52425 Julich, Germany.
8MIT, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.
9CERN, European Org Nucl Res, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland.
10INFN, Sez Roma 1, I-00185 Rome, Italy.
11Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, POB 800, NL-9700 AV Groningen, Netherlands.
12INFN TIFPA, I-38123 Trento, Italy.
13Univ Trento, I-38123 Trento, Italy.
14Univ Perugia, I-06100 Perugia, Italy.
15Univ Hawaii, Phys & Astron Dept, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA.
16NASA, Johnson Space Ctr JSC, Houston, TX 77058 USA.
17Univ Roma La Sapienza, I-00185 Rome, Italy.
18INFN, Sez Milano Bicocca, I-20126 Milan, Italy.
19Univ Geneva, DPNC, CH-1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.
20Christian Alberts Univ Kiel, Inst Expt & Angew Phys, D-24118 Kiel, Germany.
21CNR, IROE, I-50125 Florence, Italy.
22INFN, Sez Pisa, I-56100 Pisa, Italy.
23Acad Sinica, Inst Phys, Taipei 11529, Taiwan.
24Chinese Acad Sci, IHEP, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China.
25UCAS, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China.
26Shandong Inst Adv Technol SDIAT, Jinan 250100, Shandong, Peoples R China.
27Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IN2P3,LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France.
28INFN, Sez Bologna, I-40126 Bologna, Italy.
29Univ Bologna, I-40126 Bologna, Italy.
30Shandong Univ SDU, Jinan 250100, Shandong, Peoples R China.
31Middle East Tech Univ METU, Dept Phys, TR-06800 Ankara, Turkiye.
32Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Grenoble INP, LPSC,IN2P3, F-38000 Grenoble, France.
33INFN, Sez Roma Tor Vergata, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
34Southeast Univ SEU, Nanjing 210096, Peoples R China.
35IAC, Tenerife 38205, Spain.
36Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, Tenerife 38206, Spain.
37Univ Milano Bicocca, I-20126 Milan, Italy.
38Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Fis, Mexico City 01000, DF, Mexico.
39Natl Chung Shan Inst Sci & Technol NCSIST, Longtan 32546, Tao Yuan, Taiwan.
40Sun Yat Sen Univ SYSU, Guangzhou 510275, Peoples R China.
41Kyungpook Natl Univ, CHEP, Daegu 41566, South Korea.
42Acad Sinica Grid Ctr ASGC, Taipei 11529, Taiwan.
43Chinese Acad Sci, IEE, Beijing 100190, Peoples R China.
44Univ Oulu, Sodankyla Geophys Observ, Oulu 90014, Finland.
45Univ Oulu, Space Phys & Astron Res Unit, Oulu 90014, Finland.
46Univ Maryland, East West Ctr Space Sci, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
47Univ Maryland, IPST, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
48Beihang Univ BUAA, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China.
49Univ Turku, Dept Phys & Astron, Space Res Lab, Turku 20014, Finland.
50ASI, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
51Natl Cent Univ NCU, Phys Dept, Taoyuan 32054, Taiwan.
52Natl Cent Univ NCU, Ctr High Energy & High Field Phys, Taoyuan 32054, Taiwan.
53Natl Cheng Kung Univ, Tainan 70101, Taiwan.
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Language: English
Published: American Physical Society, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-08-18


We present the precision measurements of 11 years of daily cosmic electron fluxes in the rigidity interval from 1.00 to 41.9 GV based on 2.0 x 10⁸ electrons collected with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) aboard the International Space Station. The electron fluxes exhibit variations on multiple timescales. Recurrent electron flux variations with periods of 27 days, 13.5 days, and 9 days are observed. We find that the electron fluxes show distinctly different time variations from the proton fluxes. Remarkably, a hysteresis between the electron flux and the proton flux is observed with a significance of greater than 6 sigma at rigidities below 8.5 GV. Furthermore, significant structures in the electron-proton hysteresis are observed corresponding to sharp structures in both fluxes. This continuous daily electron data provide unique input to the understanding of the charge sign dependence of cosmic rays over an 11-year solar cycle.

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Series: Physical review letters
ISSN: 0031-9007
ISSN-E: 1079-7114
ISSN-L: 0031-9007
Volume: 130
Issue: 16
Article number: 161001
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.130.161001
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 115 Astronomy and space science
Funding: We are grateful for important physics discussions with Igor Moskalenko. We thank former NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin for his dedication to the legacy of the ISS as a scientific laboratory and his decision for NASA to fly AMS as a DOE payload. We also acknowledge the continuous support of the NASA leadership, particularly Kathryn Lueders, and of the JSC and MSFC flight control teams that have allowed AMS to operate optimally on the ISS for over 11 years. We are grateful for the support of Glen Crawford of the DOE including resources from the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. We gratefully acknowledge strong support from CERN, including Fabiola Gianotti, and the CERN IT department, including Bernd Panzer-Steindel. We also acknowledge the continu-ous support from MIT and its School of Science, Nergis Mavalvala, and the Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Boleslaw Wyslouch. Research supported by the following: Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Institute of Electrical Engineering, China Academy of Space Technology, National Natural Science Foundation, and Ministry of Science and Technology, the China Scholarship Council, the provincial governments of Shandong, Jiangsu, Guangdong, Shandong University, and the Shandong Institute of Advanced Technology, China; the Academy of Finland, Project No. 321882, Finland; CNRS/IN2P3 and CNES, France; DLR under Grant No. 50OO1805 and computing support on the JARA Partition of the RWTH Aachen supercom-puter, Germany; INFN and ASI under ASI-INFN Agreements No. 2019-19-HH.0, its amendments, and No. 2021-43-HH.0, and ASI-University of Perugia Agreement No. 2019-2-HH.0, Italy; CHEP and NRF under Grant No. NRF-2018R1A6A1A06024970 at Kyungpook National University, Korea; the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia and UNAM, Mexico; NWO under Grant No. 680-1-004, Netherlands; FCT under Grant No. CERN/FIS-PAR/0013/2019, Portugal; the Ministry of Science and Higher Education under Project No. 0723-2020-0040, Russia; CIEMAT, IAC, CDTI, and SEIDI-MINECO under Grants No. PID2019-107988 GB-C21/C22 and No. CEX2019-000920-S, Spain; the Fondation Dr. Manfred Steuer, Switzerland; Academia Sinica and the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) under Grants No. 107-2119-M-006-015-MY3, No. 109-2112-M-001-029, and No. CDA-105-M06, former Presidents of Academia Sinica, Yuan-Tseh Lee and Chi-Huey Wong, and former Ministers of MOST, Maw-Kuen Wu and Luo-Chuan Lee, Taiwan; the Turkish Energy, Nuclear and Mineral Research Agency Grants No. 1455202 and No. 2013228, Wyle Laboratories Grant No. 2014/T72497, and NASA NESSF Grant No. HELIO15F-0005, USA.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 321882
Detailed Information: 321882 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
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