University of Oulu

Babanejad, S., Ahmed, H., Andersson, C. et al. Mechanical Activation-Assisted Recovery of Valuable Metals from Black Mass in the Form of Fe/Cu Alloys. J. Sustain. Metall. 9, 522–536 (2023).

Mechanical activation-assisted recovery of valuable metals from black mass in the form of Fe/Cu alloys

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Author: Babanejad, Safoura1; Ahmed, Hesham1,2; Andersson, Charlotte1;
Organizations: 1Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resource Engineering, Process Metallurgy, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, 971 87, Luleå, Sweden
2Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute, P.O. Box 87, Helwan, 114 21, Egypt
3University of Oulu, Process Metallurgy, PO Box 4300, 90014, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.6 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-08-18


Pyrometallurgy is a popular industrial method that is employed in the recovery of valuable elements from black mass (BM), which is produced by pretreatment of Li-ion batteries. This method struggles with some downsides, such as the incineration of graphite and high energy consumption. In this study, the goal is to utilize graphite in the BM to produce a master alloy in an attempt to decrease the energy input requirement. To achieve this, metal oxides (Fe₂O₃ and CuO) are added to the BM to produce an Fe/Cu-based alloy containing Co/Ni as alloying elements. Mechanical activation is also employed to decrease the energy requirement and to increase the amount of metal oxide that can be reduced by the graphite in the BM. The results revealed that it is possible to produce the aforementioned alloys, the efficiency of which can be improved by applying mechanical activation. After 1 h of milling, the required heat flow for producing Fe- and Cu-based alloys is lowered for ~10 and ~25 kWh, respectively. Plus, the direct CO₂ emission decreases for 13–17% in the iron system and 43–46% in the copper system.

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Series: Journal of sustainable metallurgy
ISSN: 2199-3823
ISSN-E: 2199-3831
ISSN-L: 2199-3823
Volume: 9
Pages: 522 - 536
DOI: 10.1007/s40831-023-00665-6
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 218 Environmental engineering
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