University of Oulu

K. Rasilainen, T. D. Phan, M. Berg, A. Pärssinen and P. J. Soh, "Hardware Aspects of Sub-THz Antennas and Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces for 6G Communications," in IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 2530-2546, Aug. 2023, doi: 10.1109/JSAC.2023.3288250.

Hardware aspects of sub-THz antennas and reconfigurable intelligent surfaces for 6G communications

Saved in:
Author: Rasilainen, Kimmo1; Phan, Tung Duy1; Berg, Markus1;
Organizations: 1Centre for Wireless Communications, University of Oulu, 90570 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.8 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-08-21


The need for unrestricted, high-quality, and high-speed communications in planned sixth generation (6G) wireless systems drives the development and research towards the sub-terahertz (sub-THz) bands which so far have been relatively unused for wireless communications applications. Additionally, the sub-THz bands have gained an increasing interest as a potential spectral region at which to go even beyond the well-known Shannon limits. This review paper provides a technological overview on some of the key hardware aspects of sub-THz wireless communications (at 100–300GHz), namely antennas, reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RISs), and reconfigurable antenna systems based on state-of-the-art technologies reported in recent literature. Different technologies of antennas and RISs are compared to understand their possibilities and limitations, and to identify the most promising technological approaches to transform 6G from a vision into a commercially viable solution. The paper also presents the authors’ interpretations of possible hardware and design trends that can shape the future research directions.

see all

Series: IEEE journal on selected areas in communications
ISSN: 0733-8716
ISSN-E: 1558-0008
ISSN-L: 0733-8716
Volume: 41
Issue: 8
Pages: 2530 - 2546
DOI: 10.1109/jsac.2023.3288250
Type of Publication: A2 Review article in a scientific journal
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: This work was supported in part by the Academy of Finland through the 6G Flagship Program under Grant 346208, in part by the Academy of Finland through the Academy Project LiBERATE under Grant 346949, and in part by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Program under Grant 101015956 Hexa-X.
EU Grant Number: (101015956) Hexa-X - A flagship for B5G/6G vision and intelligent fabric of technology enablers connecting human, physical, and digital worlds
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 346208
Detailed Information: 346208 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
346949 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. For more information, see