University of Oulu

Pesyridis A, Asif MS, Mehranfar S, Mahmoudzadeh Andwari A, Gharehghani A, Megaritis T. Design of the Organic Rankine Cycle for High-Efficiency Diesel Engines in Marine Applications. Energies. 2023; 16(11):4374.

Design of the organic Rankine cycle for high-efficiency diesel engines in marine applications

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Author: Pesyridis, Apostolos1; Asif, Muhammad Suleman1; Mehranfar, Sadegh2;
Organizations: 1Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Brunel University, London UB8 3PH, UK
2Machine and Vehicle Design (MVD), Materials and Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
3School of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran 16846, Iran
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 3.1 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-08-21


Over the past few years, fuel prices have increased dramatically, and emissions regulations have become stricter in maritime applications. In order to take these factors into consideration, improvements in fuel consumption have become a mandatory factor and a main task of research and development departments in this area. Internal combustion engines (ICEs) can exploit only about 15–40% of chemical energy to produce work effectively, while most of the fuel energy is wasted through exhaust gases and coolant. Although there is a significant amount of wasted energy in thermal processes, the quality of that energy is low owing to its low temperature and provides limited potential for power generation consequently. Waste heat recovery (WHR) systems take advantage of the available waste heat for producing power by utilizing heat energy lost to the surroundings at no additional fuel costs. Among all available waste heat sources in the engine, exhaust gas is the most potent candidate for WHR due to its high level of exergy. Regarding WHR technologies, the well-known Rankine cycles are considered the most promising candidate for improving ICE thermal efficiency. This study is carried out for a six-cylinder marine diesel engine model operating with a WHR organic Rankine cycle (ORC) model that utilizes engine exhaust energy as input. Using expander inlet conditions in the ORC model, preliminary turbine design characteristics are calculated. For this mean-line model, a MATLAB code has been developed. In off-design expander analysis, performance maps are created for different speed and pressure ratios. Results are produced by integrating the polynomial correlations between all of these parameters into the ORC model. ORC efficiency varies in design and off-design conditions which are due to changes in expander input conditions and, consequently, net power output. In this study, ORC efficiency varies from a minimum of 6% to a maximum of 12.7%. ORC efficiency performance is also affected by certain variables such as the coolant flow rate, heat exchanger’s performance etc. It is calculated that with the increase of coolant flow rate, ORC efficiency increases due to the higher turbine work output that is made possible, and the condensing pressure decreases. It is calculated that ORC can improve engine Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) from a minimum of 2.9% to a maximum of 5.1%, corresponding to different engine operating points. Thus, decreasing overall fuel consumption shows a positive effect on engine performance. It can also increase engine power output by up to 5.42% if so required for applications where this may be deemed necessary and where an appropriate mechanical connection is made between the engine shaft and the expander shaft. The ORC analysis uses a bespoke expander design methodology and couples it to an ORC design architecture method to provide an important methodology for high-efficiency marine diesel engine systems that can extend well beyond the marine sector and into the broader ORC WHR field and are applicable to many industries (as detailed in the Introduction section of this paper).

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Series: Energies
ISSN: 1996-1073
ISSN-E: 1996-1073
ISSN-L: 1996-1073
Volume: 16
Issue: 11
Article number: 4374
DOI: 10.3390/en16114374
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 214 Mechanical engineering
Copyright information: © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (