University of Oulu

Larsen, N., & Mishev, A. L. (2023). Analysis of the ground level enhancement GLE 60 on 15 April 2001, and its space weather effects: Comparison with dosimetric measurements. Space Weather, 21, e2023SW003488.

Analysis of the ground level enhancement GLE 60 on 15 April 2001, and its space weather effects : comparison with dosimetric measurements

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Author: Larsen, N.1,2; Mishev, A. L.1,2
Organizations: 1Space Physics and Astronomy Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.6 MB)
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Language: English
Published: American Geophysical Union, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-08-22


As a result of notable solar activity observed in April 2001, one of the strongest ground level enhancements (GLE) of solar cycle 23 occurred, namely GLE # 60 on 15 April 2001. In this paper, we derived the spectral and angular characteristics, and apparent source position of the solar protons during the GLE # 60, using a verified by direct measurements model and employing the calibrated neutron monitor yield function. Subsequently, employing the updated and verified by balloon measurements dosimetric model: Oulu CRAC:DOMO (Cosmic Ray Atmospheric Cascade: Dosimetric Model) we computed the dose rates throughout the event at several altitudes using the obtained spectra as an input. A global map of the ambient dose at an altitude of 35 kft is computed. A comparison with direct dosimetric measurements obtained by a Liulin device during an intercontinental flight is performed and good agreement is achieved.

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Series: Space weather
ISSN: 1542-7390
ISSN-E: 1542-7390
ISSN-L: 1542-7390
Volume: 21
Issue: 8
Article number: e2023SW003488
DOI: 10.1029/2023SW003488
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 115 Astronomy and space science
114 Physical sciences
Funding: This work was supported by the Academy of Finland (projects 330063 QUASARE, 321882 ESPERA and HE project ALBATROS. This work was partially supported by the National Science Fund of Bulgaria under contract KP-06-H28/4.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 330063
Detailed Information: 330063 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
321882 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2023. The Authors. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.