University of Oulu

Brauer, S., Kettunen, J., Levy, A. et al. The educational paradigm shift—a phenomenographic study of medical teachers’ experiences of practices. BMC Med Educ 23, 29 (2023).

The educational paradigm shift : a phenomenographic study of medical teachers’ experiences of practices

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Author: Brauer, Sanna1; Kettunen, Jaana2; Levy, Anna1;
Organizations: 1Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Finnish Institute for Educational Research, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland
3University of Helsinki, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-08-24


Background: This paper proposes a novel approach to the development of competence-oriented higher education, a national transformation aimed at harmonising and digitising undergraduate medical and dental education in Finland.

Methods: We apply phenomenography as a viable qualitative method for medical education research. To better understand medical teachers’ expectations towards the change in the educational paradigm, we need to study teachers’ experiences of the current practices in undergraduate medical and dental education. The phenomenographic approach facilitates solid links between research, educational development, and change.

Results: The phenomenographic study maps the qualitatively different ways in which medical teachers experience undergraduate medical and dental education practices. The answers reflect the changing educational paradigm in medical schools, suggesting practical implications for further development of medical and dental education and training. Core content analysis is preferred instructional scaffold for both teachers and students to prioritise the extensive medical education objectives. The change towards competence-based orientation is in progress and national co-operation accelerates its impact.

Conclusion: There is an obvious need to enrich the content of the current curriculum with national guidelines that aim for congruence in assessment and objectives. Our results suggest an assessment application for the theoretical concepts presented and promote the competence orientation of education throughout the curricula of medical and dental undergraduate education. Moreover, our results contribute to current European discourses on competence-based approaches in higher education. Up-to-date pedagogical faculty development programmes are a key prerequisite for teacher empowerment and future orientation in teaching and learning for healthcare professions.

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Series: BMC medical education
ISSN: 1472-6920
ISSN-E: 1472-6920
ISSN-L: 1472-6920
Volume: 23
Issue: 1
Article number: 29
DOI: 10.1186/s12909-023-04013-w
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 516 Educational sciences
3121 General medicine, internal medicine and other clinical medicine
Funding: This study has been performed with the support of the Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture, decision number OKM/270/523/2017, Docid: 363635.
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