University of Oulu

Hamada, A., Khosravifard, A., Ghosh, S., Jaskari, M., Kreins, M., Abd-Elaziem, W., Wahba, M., Ahmed, E., & Allam, T. (2023). Enhancement of strength in laser-joined Al-TRIP and Si-TRIP steels: Microstructural insights and deformation analysis. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 885, 145591.

Enhancement of strength in laser-joined Al-TRIP and Si-TRIP steels : microstructural insights and deformation analysis

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Author: Hamada, Atef1; Khosravifard, Ali2; Ghosh, Sumit3;
Organizations: 1Kerttu Saalasti Institute, Future Manufacturing Technologies, University of Oulu, Pajatie 5, FI-85500 Nivala, Finland
2Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Abadeh Higher Education Center, Shiraz University, Abadeh 73916, Iran
3Materials and Mechanical Engineering, Centre for Advanced Steels Research, University of Oulu, FI-90014, Finland
4Steel Institute, RWTH Aachen University, Intzestraße 1, 52072, Aachen, Germany
5Department of Mechanical Design and Production Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University, P.O. Box 44519, Egypt
6Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), Helwan 11722, Egypt
7Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Suez University, 43528 Suez, Egypt
8Institute of Energy and Climate Research: Structure and Function of Materials (IEK-2), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425, Jülich, Germany
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 34 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-08-25


This study highlights the strengthening mechanisms observed during the metal joining of high-strength grade steels (Al-TRIP and Si-TRIP) by providing a concise investigation of microstructural features, mechanical strength evaluation, and employing Finite Element Method (FEM) analysis to understand the deformation behaviour in the joint. The base metals (BMs), Al-TRIP and Si-TRIP are cold-rolled sheets with thicknesses of 0.9 mm and 1.3 mm, respectively. Al-TRIP contains 2.4 wt% Al, while Si-TRIP contains 1.5 wt% Si. The Al-/Si-TRIP joint was processed by laser welding at low energy input 24 J/mm. Electron backscattering diffraction and transmission electron microscopy extensively characterized the microstructural features in the fusion zone (FZ) and heat-affected zone (HAZ) to study strengthening mechanisms induced by welding. Uniaxial tensile tests examined joint mechanical strength, while microindentation hardness (HIT) measurements evaluated mechanical response in the weld zones. The FZ showed a fully martensitic structure, while the HAZs displayed refined grains. Ultrafine-grained structures with an average size of 1 μm were observed in the HAZs, resulting in higher HIT hardness values (∼6.7 GPa) compared to the FZ (∼6.3 GPa). Interestingly, the mechanical tensile properties of the joint were unaffected as failure occurred in the thinner Al-TRIP steel. Finite Element Method (FEM) analysis simulated the tensile testing, revealing localized plasticity in the thinner Al-TRIP and explaining the observed fracture.

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Series: Materials science & engineering. A, Structural materials: properties, microstructure and processing
ISSN: 0921-5093
ISSN-E: 1873-4936
ISSN-L: 0921-5093
Volume: 885
Article number: 145591
DOI: 10.1016/j.msea.2023.145591
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
214 Mechanical engineering
Copyright information: © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (