Niskanen, I., Immonen, M., Makkonen, T. et al. Trench visualisation from a semiautonomous excavator with a base grid map using a TOF 2D profilometer. J Vis 26, 889–898 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12650-023-00908-4
Trench visualisation from a semiautonomous excavator with a base grid map using a TOF 2D profilometer
|Author:||Niskanen, Ilpo1,2; Immonen, Matti1; Makkonen, Tomi1;|
1Faculty of Technology, Structures and Construction Technology, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4000, FI-90014, Oulu, Finland
2Public Works Research Institute, 1-6 Minamihara, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 300-2621, Japan
3Faculty of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, Circuits and Systems Research Unit, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 7300, FI-90014, Oulu, Finland
4Mitta Oy, Laakeritie 9, FI-90620, Oulu, Finland
|Online Access:||PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.4 MB)|
|Persistent link:|| http://urn.fi/urn:nbn:fi-fe20230825107531
|Publish Date:|| 2023-08-25
Real-time, three-dimensional (3D) visualisation technology can be used at construction sites to improve the quality of work. A 3D view of the landscape under work can be compared to a target 3D model of the landscape to conveniently show needed excavation tasks to a human excavator operator or to show the progress of an autonomous excavator. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate surface visualisation from measurements taken with a pulsed time-of-flight (TOF) 2D profilometer on-board a semiautonomous excavator. The semiautomatic excavator was implemented by recording the feedback script parameters from the work performed on the excavator by a human driver. 3D visualisation maps based on the triangle mesh technique were generated from the 3D point cloud using measurements of the trenches dug by a human and an autonomous excavator. The accuracy of the 3D maps was evaluated by comparing them to a high-resolution commercial 3D scanner. An analysis of the results shows that the 2D profilometer attached to the excavator can achieve almost the same 3D results as a high-quality on-site static commercial 3D scanner, whilst more easily providing an unobstructed view of the trench during operation (a 3D scanner placed next to a deep trench might not have a full view of the trench). The main technical advantages of our 2D profilometer are its compact size, measurement speed, lack of moving parts, robustness, low-cost technology that enables visualisations from a unique viewpoint on the boom of the excavator, and readiness for real-time control of the excavator’s system. This research is expected to encourage the efficiency of the digging process in the future, as well as to provide a remarkable view of trench work using an excavator as a moving platform to facilitate data visualisation.
Journal of visualization
|Pages:||889 - 898|
|Type of Publication:||
A1 Journal article – refereed
|Field of Science:||
114 Physical sciences
We gratefully acknowledge funding from Business Finland (38056/31/2020).
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