University of Oulu

Paalimäki-Paakki, K., Virtanen, M., Henner, A., Vähänikkilä, H., Nieminen, M. T., Schroderus-Salo, T., & Kääriäinen, M. (2023). Effects of a 360° virtual counselling environment on patient anxiety and CCTA process time: A randomised controlled trial. Radiography, 29, S13–S23.

Effects of a 360° virtual counselling environment on patient anxiety and CCTA process time : a randomised controlled trial

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Author: Paalimäki-Paakki, Karoliina1,2; Virtanen, Mari3; Henner, Anja2;
Organizations: 1Research Unit of Nursing Science and Health Management, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Degree Programme of Radiography and Radiation Therapy, Oulu University of Applied Sciences, Oulu, Finland
3School of Rehabilitation and Examination, Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences, Helsinki, Finland
4Northern Finland Birth Cohorts, Arctic Biobank, Infrastructure for Population Studies, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
5Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
6Research Unit of Medical Imaging, Physics and Technology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
7Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland
8Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.1 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-08-28


Introduction: This study investigated whether a 360° virtual counselling environment (360°VCE) was more effective at decreasing patients’ anxiety than routine standard of care counselling for patients undergoing coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), and if there was any difference in the process times for both of these groups.

Methods: A total of 86 patients underwent CCTA in this randomised controlled trial. Patients were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. The 360°VCE was developed using spherical panoramic images and non-immersive 360° technology. The primary outcome, anxiety, was measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The secondary outcome, CCTA process time, was measured from the time of arrival in the department until end of examination.

Results: Pre-scan anxiety was lower among patients in the 360°VCE group immediately before CCTA in comparison to patients in the control group (p = 0.015). Women demonstrated higher levels of anxiety than men in both groups. No between-group differences were discerned in CCTA process time.

Conclusions: Access to 360°VCE can reduce patients’ pre-CCTA anxiety levels.

Implications for practice: The presented results can be used to improve patient counselling and care, reduce anxiety among patients undergoing CCTA, and optimise the CCTA examination procedure.

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Series: Radiography
ISSN: 1078-8174
ISSN-E: 1532-2831
ISSN-L: 1078-8174
Volume: 29 Suppl 1
Pages: S13 - S23
DOI: 10.1016/j.radi.2022.09.013
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3141 Health care science
Copyright information: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of The College of Radiographers. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://