University of Oulu

Nissilä, J., Pylvänäinen, M., Visuri, VV. et al. Vibration and Audio Measurements in the Monitoring of Basic Oxygen Furnace Steelmaking. Metall Mater Trans B (2023).

Vibration and audio measurements in the monitoring of basic oxygen furnace steelmaking

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Author: Nissilä, Juhani1; Pylvänäinen, Mika1; Visuri, Ville-Valtteri2;
Organizations: 1Intelligent Machines and Systems, University of Oulu, PO Box 4200, 90014, Oulu, Finland
2Process Metallurgy Research Unit, University of Oulu, PO Box 4300, 90014, Oulu, Finland
3Applied and Computational Mathematics, University of Oulu, PO Box 4500, 90014, Oulu, Finland
4Technical Development, Steelmaking, SSAB Europe Oy, PO Box 93, 92101, Raahe, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 13.3 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-09-04


A basic oxygen furnace (BOF) is the main unit process for refining carbon steel. The aim of this work was to study the use of vibration and audio signal measurements to monitor, predict, and control the BOF process. Vibration and audio data from nearly 300 blows were collected and analyzed together with process variables. We could confirm high correlations between some of the process variables and vibration and audio measurements. Median filtered low-frequency (3–20 Hz) audio as well as X- and Z-direction acceleration root mean square (RMS) time series correlate with the off-gas temperature, although this is much more significant for the audio data. For Y-direction measurements (the upward direction) the correlation is negligible. The low-frequency audio and vibration data are likely related to the rate of decarburization. Median filtered mid-frequency (100–1000 Hz) audio as well as X-, Y-, and Z-direction acceleration RMS time series correlate with the lance height measurement during the interval 20–600 seconds from the beginning of oxygen blow. For the audio data, the correlation was high even without median filtering. We suggest that audio and vibration activity in this frequency range is possibly related to the formation of the metal–slag–gas foam and maybe even to slopping.

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Series: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, Process metallurgy and materials processing science
ISSN: 1073-5615
ISSN-E: 1543-1916
ISSN-L: 1073-5615
DOI: 10.1007/s11663-023-02859-5
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 215 Chemical engineering
214 Mechanical engineering
216 Materials engineering
Funding: Open Access funding provided by University of Oulu including Oulu University Hospital.
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2023. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit