University of Oulu

Amin, B. M., Kekkonen, J., Talala, T., & Nissinen, I. (2023). 3-D Raman Imaging Using Time-Resolving CMOS SPAD Line Sensor and 2-D Mapping. In IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement (Vol. 72, pp. 1–10). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).

3-D Raman imaging using time-resolving CMOS SPAD line sensor and 2-D mapping

Saved in:
Author: Amin, Belal Mostafa1; Kekkonen, Jere1; Talala, Tuomo1;
Organizations: 1Circuits and Systems Research Unit, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.7 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-09-04


The capability of Raman imaging to produce 2-D and 3-D chemical presentations of samples has gained a lot of interest in different application fields. In this article, we present a 3-D chemical image reconstruction based on 2-D scanning of a sample utilizing a time-resolved Raman spectrometer based on a complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) line sensor. The 2-D scanning data contain the lateral information (XY plane), whereas the time-of-arrival data of the Raman photons measured by the sensor carry the axial information (i.e., depth information, Z -axis). The sensor is fabricated in 110-nm CMOS technology. It has 256-spectral channels, and each channel has its own 7-bit ON-chip time-to-digital converter (TDC) with an adjustable resolution from 25 to 65 ps. In addition to the 3-D chemical reconstruction of the scanned sample, we have shown the ability to retrieve depth profiling information of each scanned pixel, such as the boundaries and middle points of any selected layer over the depth range of the scanned object by means of a single measurement for each scanned pixel. In addition, we have discussed the system components and the postprocessing parameters that affect the depth profiling accuracy and the 3-D reconstruction operation the most. Results showed that the instrument response function (IRF) of the system and the time gate window width in a postprocessing phase are playing the most important role in determining the axial (depth) accuracy. We believe that our system will enable a whole new class of Raman applications that will allow simultaneous 3-D chemical geometric representation at the centimeter level during Raman operations.

see all

Series: IEEE transactions on instrumentation and measurement
ISSN: 0018-9456
ISSN-E: 1557-9662
ISSN-L: 0018-9456
Volume: 72
Article number: 6006210
DOI: 10.1109/TIM.2023.3284953
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: This work was supported by the Academy of Finland under Contract 323719.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 323719
Detailed Information: 323719 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2023 The Authors. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. For more information, see