University of Oulu

Rawlings, A. M., Niemivirta, M., Korhonen, J., Lindskog, M., Tuominen, H., & Mononen, R. (2023). Achievement emotions and arithmetic fluency – Development and parallel processes during the early school years. In Learning and Instruction (Vol. 86, p. 101776). Elsevier BV.

Achievement emotions and arithmetic fluency : development and parallel processes during the early school years

Saved in:
Author: Rawlings, Anna Maria1,2,3; Niemivirta, Markku4; Korhonen, Johan5;
Organizations: 1Department of Special Needs Education, University of Oslo, Norway
2Faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Jyväskylä, Finland
3Department of Education, University of Helsinki, Finland
4School of Applied Educational Science and Teacher Education, University of Eastern Finland, Finland
5Faculty of Education and Welfare Studies, Åbo Akademi University, Finland
6Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Sweden
7Department of Education, Uppsala University, Sweden
8Teachers, Teaching and Educational Communities, University of Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.8 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-09-07


This study investigated the developmental trajectories and interrelationships of mathematics-related achievement emotions and arithmetic fluency from first to third grade, and the effects of these on third grade mathematics performance. Participants were 232 Norwegian students. Students’ emotions and arithmetic fluency were measured four times and mathematics performance once. Applying latent growth curve modeling, developmental patterns of decreasing enjoyment and increasing boredom were observed over time. The mean level of enjoyment remained fairly high, and of both boredom and anxiety quite low. Individual differences were observed in both the initial levels and development of all emotions and arithmetic fluency, indicating differences in developmental trajectories. Only the initial levels and rate of change in arithmetic fluency predicted mathematics performance at the third grade.

see all

Series: Learning and instruction
ISSN: 0959-4752
ISSN-E: 1873-3263
ISSN-L: 0959-4752
Volume: 86
Article number: 101776
DOI: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2023.101776
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 516 Educational sciences
Funding: This work was supported by the Research Council of Norway [Grant number: 283396], for the last author.
Dataset Reference: Upon request from the correspondent author.
Copyright information: © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (