University of Oulu

Saeedipour, S., Gharehghani, A., Ahbabi Saray, J., Andwari, A. M., & Mikulski, M. (2023). Proposing a Hybrid Thermal Management System Based on Phase Change Material/Metal Foam for Lithium-Ion Batteries. World Electric Vehicle Journal, 14(9), 240.

Proposing a hybrid thermal management system based on phase change material/metal foam for lithium-ion batteries

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Author: Saeedipour, Soheil1; Gharehghani, Ayat1; Saray, Jabraeil Ahbabi1;
Organizations: 1School of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran 16846, Iran
2Machine and Vehicle Design (MVD), Materials and Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
3School of Technology and Innovation, Energy Technology, University of Vaasa, Wolffintie 34, 65200 Vaasa, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 8.3 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-09-07


The charging and discharging process of batteries generates a significant amount of heat, which can adversely affect their lifespan and safety. This study aims to enhance the performance of a lithium-ion battery (LIB) pack with a high discharge rate (5C) by proposing a combined battery thermal management system (BTMS) consisting of improved phase change materials (paraffin/aluminum composite) and forced-air convection. Battery thermal performance is simulated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to study the effects of heat transfer and flow parameters. To evaluate the impact of essential parameters on the thermal performance of the battery module, temperature uniformity and maximum temperature in the cells are evaluated. For the proposed cooling system, an ambient temperature of 24.5 °C and the application of a 3 mm thick paraffin/aluminum composite showed the best cooling effect. In addition, a 2 m/s inlet velocity with 25 mm cell spacing provided the best cooling performance, thus reducing the maximum temperature. The paraffin can effectively manage thermal parameters maintaining battery temperature stability and uniformity. Simulation results demonstrated that the proposed cooling system combined with forced-air convection, paraffin, and metal foam effectively reduced the maximum temperature and temperature difference in the battery by 308 K and 2.0 K, respectively.

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Series: World electric vehicle journal
ISSN: 2032-6653
ISSN-E: 2032-6653
ISSN-L: 2032-6653
Volume: 14
Issue: 9
Article number: 240
DOI: 10.3390/wevj14090240
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 214 Mechanical engineering
Copyright information: © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (