University of Oulu

Stober, G., Liu, A., Kozlovsky, A., Qiao, Z., Krochin, W., Shi, G., Kero, J., Tsutsumi, M., Gulbrandsen, N., Nozawa, S., Lester, M., Baumgarten, K., Belova, E., and Mitchell, N.: Identifying gravity waves launched by the Hunga Tonga–Hunga Ha′apai volcanic eruption in mesosphere/lower-thermosphere winds derived from CONDOR and the Nordic Meteor Radar Cluster, Ann. Geophys., 41, 197–208,, 2023

Identifying gravity waves launched by the Hunga Tonga–Hunga Ha′apai volcanic eruption in mesosphere/lower-thermosphere winds derived from CONDOR and the Nordic Meteor Radar Cluster

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Author: Stober, Gunter1; Liu, Alan2; Kozlovsky, Alexander3;
Organizations: 1Institute of Applied Physics & Oeschger Center for Climate Change Research, Microwave Physics, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
2Center for Space and Atmospheric Research and Department of Physical Sciences, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, Florida, USA
3Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
4Swedish Institute of Space Physics (IRF), Kiruna, Sweden
5National Institute of Polar Research, Tachikawa, Japan
6The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Tokyo, Japan
7Tromsø Geophysical Observatory, UiT – The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway
8Ionospheric and Magnetospheric Research, Institute for Space-Earth Environment Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan
9Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK
10Smart Ocean Technologies, Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems IKTS, Rostock, Germany
11British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, UK
12Department of Electronic & Electrical Engineering, University of Bath, Bath, UK
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 5.9 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Copernicus Publications, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-09-11


The Hunga Tonga–Hunga Ha′apai volcano eruption was a unique event that caused many atmospheric phenomena around the globe. In this study, we investigate the atmospheric gravity waves in the mesosphere/lower-thermosphere (MLT) launched by the volcanic explosion in the Pacific, leveraging multistatic meteor radar observations from the Chilean Observation Network De Meteor Radars (CONDOR) and the Nordic Meteor Radar Cluster in Fennoscandia. MLT winds are computed using a recently developed 3DVAR+DIV algorithm. We found eastward- and westward-traveling gravity waves in the CONDOR zonal and meridional wind measurements, which arrived 12 and 48 h after the eruption, and we found one in the Nordic Meteor Radar Cluster that arrived 27.5 h after the volcanic detonation. We obtained observed phase speeds for the eastward great circle path at both locations of about 250 m s⁻¹, and they were 170–150 m s⁻¹ for the opposite propagation direction. The intrinsic phase speed was estimated to be 200–212 m s⁻¹. Furthermore, we identified a potential lamb wave signature in the MLT winds using 5 min resolved 3DVAR+DIV retrievals.

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Series: Annales geophysicae
ISSN: 0992-7689
ISSN-E: 1432-0576
ISSN-L: 0992-7689
Volume: 41
Issue: 1
Pages: 197 - 208
DOI: 10.5194/angeo-41-197-2023
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 115 Astronomy and space science
Funding: Witali Krochin and Guochun Shi are supported by the Schweizerischer Nationalfonds zur Förderung der Wissenschaftlichen Forschung (grant no. 200021-200517/1). Zishun Qiao and the operation of the CONDOR meteor radar system are supported by the NSF grant 1828589. This research has been supported by the STFCCE14 (grant no. ST/W00089X/1 to Mark Lester). This study is partly supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (no. 17H02968) of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS).
Copyright information: © Author(s) 2023. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.