University of Oulu

Greco, R., Botella, R., & Fernández-Catalá, J. (2023). Cu-Based Z-Schemes Family Photocatalysts for Solar H2 Production. Hydrogen, 4(3), 620–643.

Cu-based Z-schemes family photocatalysts for solar H₂ production

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Author: Greco, Rossella1; Botella, Romain1; Fernández-Catalá, Javier1,2
Organizations: 1Nano and Molecular Systems Research Unit, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
2Materials Science Institute and Inorganic Chemistry Department, University of Alicante, Ap. 99, 03080 Alicante, Spain
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 7 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-09-12


Solar photocatalytic H₂ production has drawn an increasing amount of attention from the scientific community, industry, and society due to its use of green solar energy and a photocatalyst (semiconductor material) to produce green H₂. Cu-based semiconductors are interesting as photocatalysts for H₂ production because Cu is earth-abundant, cheap, and the synthesis of its copper-containing semiconductors is straightforward. Moreover, Cu-based semiconductors absorb visible light and present an adequate redox potential to perform water splitting reaction. Nevertheless, pristine Cu-based semiconductors exhibit low photoactivity due to the rapid recombination of photo-induced electron-hole (e⁻-h⁺) pairs and are subject to photo corrosion. To remedy these pitfalls, the Cu semiconductor-based Z-scheme family (Z-schemes and S-schemes) presents great interest due to the charge carrier mechanism involved. Due to the interest of Z-scheme photocatalysts in this issue, the basic concepts of the Z-scheme focusing on Cu-based semiconductors are addressed to obtain novel systems with high H₂ photo-catalytic activity. Focusing on H₂ production using Cu-based Z-schemes photocatalyst, the most representative examples are included in the main text. To conclude, an outlook on the future challenges of this topic is addressed.

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Series: Hydrogen
ISSN: 2673-4141
ISSN-E: 2673-4141
ISSN-L: 2673-4141
Volume: 4
Issue: 3
Pages: 620 - 643
DOI: 10.3390/hydrogen4030040
Type of Publication: A2 Review article in a scientific journal
Field of Science: 116 Chemical sciences
216 Materials engineering
215 Chemical engineering
221 Nanotechnology
Funding: Grant MARSALAS21-09 funded by MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033 and European Union NextGenerationEU/PRTR. CATCH project funded by the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (grant agreement no. 101002219).
EU Grant Number: (101002219) CATCH - Cross-dimensional Activation of Two-Dimensional Semiconductors for Photocatalytic Heterojunctions
Copyright information: © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (