Norberg, J., Käki, S., Roininen, L., Mielich, J., & Virtanen, I. I. (2023). Model-free approach for regional ionospheric multi-instrument imaging. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 128, e2022JA030794. https://doi.org/10.1029/2022JA030794
Model-free approach for regional ionospheric multi-instrument imaging
|Author:||Norberg, J.1; Käki, S.1; Roininen, L.2;|
1Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland
2Lappeenranta-Lahti University of Technology, Lappeenranta, Finland
3Leibniz Institute of Atmospheric Physics at the University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany
4University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
|Online Access:||PDF Full Text (PDF, 8.7 MB)|
|Persistent link:|| http://urn.fi/urn:nbn:fi-fe20230914125442
American Geophysical Union,
|Publish Date:|| 2023-09-14
The article proposes a straightforward Kalman filter-based method for computationally efficient ionospheric electron density multi-instrument imaging. The approach uses direct ionospheric measurements, such as ionosondes, and general physical assumptions to estimate the uncertainty associated with the previous reconstructed time step. Therefore the method does not require any electron density model of the ionosphere as a background. The uncertainty is represented by an inverse covariance matrix constructed with Gaussian Markov random fields, allowing the problem to be solved directly with relatively high resolution. The experiments utilize measurements from dense ground-based GNSS and low Earth orbit beacon satellite receiver networks as well as ionosondes. A synthetic simulation verification and real data validation with a specific European Incoherent Scatter Scientific Association incoherent scatter radar measurement campaign is carried out over Northern European sector. The method can be controlled using parameters with probabilistic and physically realistic interpretations that can be applied to both simulated and real-world data. The results show that the approach is feasible for near real-time regional ionospheric imaging. Especially, the method can be seen as an expansion to local profile measurements field of view, but with sufficient measurement coverage, it also provides information further away from the specific instrument.
Journal of geophysical research. Space physics
|Pages:||1 - 17|
|Type of Publication:||
A1 Journal article – refereed
|Field of Science:||
115 Astronomy and space science
The work of Johannes Norberg was supported by the Academy of Finland (Decision number 348783).
© 2022. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Norberg, J., Käki, S., Roininen, L., Mielich, J., & Virtanen, I. I. (2023). Model-free approach for regional ionospheric multi-instrument imaging. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 128, e2022JA030794, which has been published in final form at https://doi.org/10.1029/2022JA030794. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Use of Self-Archived Versions. This article may not be enhanced, enriched or otherwise transformed into a derivative work, without express permission from Wiley or by statutory rights under applicable legislation. Copyright notices must not be removed, obscured or modified. The article must be linked to Wiley’s version of record on Wiley Online Library and any embedding, framing or otherwise making available the article or pages thereof by third parties from platforms, services and websites other than Wiley Online Library must be prohibited.