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Hammam, A., Nasr, M.I., Elsadek, M.H. et al. Studies on the Reduction Behavior of Iron Oxide Pellet Fines with Hydrogen Gas: Mechanism and Kinetic Analysis. J. Sustain. Metall. 9, 1289–1302 (2023).

Studies on the reduction behavior of Iion oxide pellet fines with hydrogen gas : mechanism and kinetic analysis

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Author: Hammam, Abourehab1,2; Nasr, M. I.2; Elsadek, M. H.2;
Organizations: 1State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, Shanghai, 200444, China
2Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), Helwan, P.O. Box 87, Cairo, Egypt
3Process Metallurgy Research Group, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 4.1 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-09-18


The present study contributes to the current worldwide activities aiming to replace fossil carbon in steel making processes with hydrogen causing considerable reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Compacts prepared from iron oxide pellets fines were isothermally reduced in pure hydrogen gas and a mixture of hydrogen and argon in the temperatures range from 700 to 1100 °C. The total weight loss produced during the reduction process was continuously recorded using thermogravimetric analysis (TG) technique. The findings demonstrated that the temperature has a considerable impact on the conversion and reduction rates. At a given temperature, the reduction rate was accelerated as the amount of H₂ increased in the reducing gas. The results indicated that H₂ content does not have an effect on reduction behavior, when it is higher than 80%. The reduction reaction of samples was shown to takes place in a step wise manner from hematite to metallic iron. The reduction kinetic and mechanism were deduced from the application of mathematical models and the morphological structure of the reduced samples and correlated with the apparent activation energy (Ea) values. The Ea values at the early, intermediate and final stages were 16.36, 29.24 and 49.35 kJ/mole, respectively. The early stage of the reduction process was controlled by chemical reaction, whereas the gaseous diffusion was controlled the latter stage. At the intermediate stage, the reduction process was controlled by mixed mechanism of gaseous diffusion and chemical reaction.

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Series: Journal of sustainable metallurgy
ISSN: 2199-3823
ISSN-E: 2199-3831
ISSN-L: 2199-3823
Volume: 9
Issue: 3
Pages: 1289 - 1302
DOI: 10.1007/s40831-023-00721-1
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
Funding: This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under grant no. (51974182), Program for Professor of Special Appointment (Eastern Scholar) at Shanghai Institutions of Higher Learning under grant No. (TP2015039), National 111 Project (The Program of Introducing Talents of Discipline to University), Grant Award Number: D17002, China Baowu Low Carbon Metallurgy Innovation Foudation-BWLCF202112 and Independent Research Project of State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel, Shanghai Key Laboratory of advanced Ferrometallurgy, Shanghai University (SKLASS 2022-Z01) and the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality, under grant No. (19DZ2270200). Open Access funding provided by University of Oulu including Oulu University Hospital.
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