University of Oulu

Pokka, A.-P., Kesti, V., & Kaijalainen, A. (2023). Global formability and bendability of ultra-high strength steels: Effect of mechanical properties on the strain distribution and behaviour in air-bending. Materials Today Communications, 37, 107081.

Global formability and bendability of ultra-high strength steels : effect of mechanical properties on the strain distribution and behaviour in air-bending

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Author: Pokka, Aki-Petteri1; Kesti, Vili2; Kaijalainen, Antti1
Organizations: 1University of Oulu, Materials and Mechanical Engineering, P.O. Box 4200, 90014 Oulu, Finland
2SSAB Europe, Rautaruukintie 115, 92101 Raahe, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 6.9 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-09-19


Bendability is a key property for ultra-high strength steels, that affects their usability in many industrial applications. Previous research and efforts on improving the bendability of high-strength steels have focused mostly on the minimum bend radius. However, as the minimum bend radius has been deemed insufficient as a measure of bendability, a new approach may be necessary for further advancements in bendability research. In this paper, bendability of nine materials is investigated from a global formability perspective, through bending tests and tensile tests. Digital image correlation is used for strain measurement in both the bending and tensile tests. Linear regression is used for determining the relationships between the obtained tensile test results and bending strain distributions. The findings of this paper show that applying a “local/global formability” approach to bendability could be beneficial for future research, as better description of the bending behaviour can be obtained and the factors affecting certain bending behaviours can be thoroughly investigated.

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Series: Materials today communications
ISSN: 2352-4928
ISSN-E: 2352-4928
ISSN-L: 2352-4928
Volume: 37
Article number: 107081
DOI: 10.1016/j.mtcomm.2023.107081
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 214 Mechanical engineering
216 Materials engineering
Funding: Financial assistance of the Business Finland, project FOSSA– Fossil-Free Steel Applications, is acknowledged.
Copyright information: © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (