University of Oulu

Orozco, G.A., Ristaniemi, A., Haghighatnejad, M. et al. Adaptation of Fibril-Reinforced Poroviscoelastic Properties in Rabbit Collateral Ligaments 8 Weeks After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Transection. Ann Biomed Eng 51, 726–740 (2023).

Adaptation of fibril-reinforced poroviscoelastic properties in rabbit collateral ligaments 8 weeks after anterior cruciate ligament transection

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Author: Orozco, Gustavo A.1,2; Ristaniemi, Aapo1,3; Haghighatnejad, Mehrnoush1;
Organizations: 1Department of Applied Physics, University of Eastern Finland, Yliopistonranta 1, 70210, Kuopio, Finland
2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Lund University, Box 188, 221 00, Lund, Sweden
3AO Research Institute Davos, Davos, Switzerland
4Research Unit of Medical Imaging, Physics and Technology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
5Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland
6Human Performance Laboratory, Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.5 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2022
Publish Date: 2023-09-20


Ligaments of the knee provide stability and prevent excessive motions of the joint. Rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), a common sports injury, results in an altered loading environment for other tissues in the joint, likely leading to their mechanical adaptation. In the collateral ligaments, the patterns and mechanisms of biomechanical adaptation following ACL transection (ACLT) remain unknown. We aimed to characterize the adaptation of elastic and viscoelastic properties of the lateral and medial collateral ligaments eight weeks after ACLT. Unilateral ACLT was performed in six rabbits, and collateral ligaments were harvested from transected and contralateral knee joints after eight weeks, and from an intact control group (eight knees from four animals). The cross-sectional areas were measured with micro-computed tomography. Stepwise tensile stress-relaxation testing was conducted up to 6% final strain, and the elastic and viscoelastic properties were characterized with a fibril-reinforced poroviscoelastic material model. We found that the cross-sectional area of the collateral ligaments in the ACL transected knees increased, the nonlinear elastic collagen network modulus of the LCL decreased, and the amount of fast relaxation in the MCL decreased. Our results indicate that rupture of the ACL leads to an early adaptation of the elastic and viscoelastic properties of the collagen fibrillar network in the collateral ligaments. These adaptations may be important to consider when evaluating whole knee joint mechanics after ACL rupture, and the results aid in understanding the consequences of ACL rupture on other tissues.

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Series: Annals of biomedical engineering
ISSN: 0090-6964
ISSN-E: 1573-9686
ISSN-L: 0090-6964
Volume: 51
Issue: 4
Pages: 726 - 740
DOI: 10.1007/s10439-022-03081-1
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3126 Surgery, anesthesiology, intensive care, radiology
Funding: We acknowledge funding from the Swedish Research Council (2019-00953—under the frame of ERA PerMed), Academy of Finland (Grant Nos. 303786, 324529, 334771, 334773—under the frame of ERA PerMed), Finnish Cultural Foundation (Grant #191044), Strategic funding from University of Eastern Finland, Maire Lisko Foundation, Sigrid Juselius Foundation, Päivikki ja Sakari Sohlberg Foundation, Maud Kuistila Memorial Foundation, the Saastamoinen Foundation, The Arthritis Society, Canada, Grant # SOG-10-0521, The Killam Foundation, The Canada Research Chair Programme, and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. Open access funding provided by University of Eastern Finland (UEF) including Kuopio University Hospital.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 303786
Detailed Information: 303786 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
334771 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
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