University of Oulu

Kylmäoja E, Abushahba F, Holopainen J, Ritala M, Tuukkanen J. Monocyte Differentiation on Atomic Layer-Deposited (ALD) Hydroxyapatite Coating on Titanium Substrate. Molecules. 2023; 28(8):3611.

Monocyte differentiation on atomic layer-deposited (ALD) hydroxyapatite coating on titanium substrate

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Author: Kylmäoja, Elina1; Abushahba, Faleh2; Holopainen, Jani3;
Organizations: 1Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Institute of Cancer Research and Translational Medicine, Medical Research Center, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, 90014 Oulu, Finland
2Department of Prosthetic Dentistry and Stomatognathic Physiology, Institute of Dentistry, University of Turku, 20520 Turku, Finland
3Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.7 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-09-20


Hydroxyapatite (HA; Ca₁₀(PO₄)₆(OH)₂) coating of bone implants has many beneficial properties as it improves osseointegration and eventually becomes degraded and replaced with new bone. We prepared HA coating on a titanium substrate with atomic layer deposition (ALD) and compared monocyte differentiation and material resorption between ALD-HA and bone. After stimulation with macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), human peripheral blood monocytes differentiated into resorbing osteoclasts on bovine bone, but non-resorbing foreign body cells were observed on ALD-HA. The analysis of the topography of ALD-HA and bone showed no differences in wettability (water contact angle on ALD-HA 86.2° vs. 86.7° on the bone), but the surface roughness of ALD-HA (Ra 0.713 µm) was significantly lower compared to bone (Ra 2.30 µm). The cellular reaction observed on ALD-HA might be a consequence of the topographical properties of the coating. The absence of resorptive osteoclasts on ALD-HA might indicate inhibition of their differentiation or the need to modify the coating to induce osteoclast differentiation.

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Series: Molecules
ISSN: 1420-3049
ISSN-E: 1420-3049
ISSN-L: 1420-3049
Volume: 28
Issue: 8
Article number: 3611
DOI: 10.3390/molecules28083611
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 1182 Biochemistry, cell and molecular biology
Funding: Open access funding provided by University of Helsinki.
Copyright information: © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (