University of Oulu

Pätsi T, Ohenoja M, Kukkasniemi H, Vuolio T, Österberg P, Merikoski S, Joutsijoki H, Ruusunen M. Comparison of Single Control Loop Performance Monitoring Methods. Applied Sciences. 2023; 13(12):6945.

Comparison of single control loop performance monitoring methods

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Author: Pätsi, Teemu1; Ohenoja, Markku1; Kukkasniemi, Harri2;
Organizations: 1Environmental and Chemical Engineering Research Unit, Control Engineering Group, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4300, 90014 Oulu, Finland
2Insta Advance Oy, Sarankulmankatu 20, 33900 Tampere, Finland
3Process Metallurgy Research Unit, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4300, 90014 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 5.6 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-09-20


Well-performing control loops have an integral role in efficient and sustainable industrial production. Control performance monitoring (CPM) tools are necessary to establish further process optimization and preventive maintenance. Data-driven, model-free control performance monitoring approaches are studied in this research by comparing the performance of nine CPM methods in an industrially relevant process simulation. The robustness of some of the methods is considered with varying fault intensities. The methods are demonstrated on a simulator which represents a validated state-space model of a supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction process. The simulator is constructed with a single-input single-output unit controller for part of the process and a combination of relevant faults in the industry are introduced into the simulation. Of the demonstrated methods, Kullback–Leibler divergence, Euclidean distance, histogram intersection, and Overall Controller Efficiency performed the best in the first simulation case and could identify all the simulated fault scenarios. In the second case, integral-based methods Integral Squared Error and Integral of Time-weighted Absolute Error had the most robust performance with different fault intensities. The results highlight the applicability and robustness of some model-free methods and construct a solid foundation in the application of CPM in industrial processes.

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Series: Applied sciences
ISSN: 2076-3417
ISSN-E: 2076-3417
ISSN-L: 2076-3417
Volume: 13
Issue: 12
Article number: 6945
DOI: 10.3390/app13126945
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: This research was funded by Business Finland grant numbers 5586/31/2019 and 5812/31/2019.
Copyright information: © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (