University of Oulu

Laohaudomchok W, Phanprasit W, Konthonbut P, Tangtong C, Sripaiboonkij P, Ikäheimo TM, Jaakkola JJK, Näyhä S. Self-Assessed Threshold Temperature for Cold among Poultry Industry Workers in Thailand. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2023; 20(3):2067.

Self-assessed threshold temperature for cold among poultry industry workers in Thailand

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Author: Laohaudomchok, Wisanti1; Phanprasit, Wantanee1; Konthonbut, Pajaree1;
Organizations: 1Department of Occupational Health and Safety, Faculty of Public Health, Mahidol University, Bangkok 73170, Thailand
2School of Public Health, Physiotherapy and Sports Science, University College Dublin, D04 V1W8 Dublin, Ireland
3Research Unit of Population Health, University of Oulu, 90570 Oulu, Finland
4Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, 9019 Tromsø, Norway
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.9 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-09-21


The self-assessed threshold temperature for cold in the workplace is not well known. We asked 392 chicken industry workers in Thailand what they regard as the cold threshold (CT) and compared subgroups of workers using linear and quantile regressions by CT sextiles (percentiles P₁₇, P₃₃, P₅₀, P₆₇, and P₈₃, from warmest to coldest). The variables of interest were sex, office work, and sedentary work, with age, clothing thermal insulation, and alcohol consumption as adjustment factors. The mean CT was 14.6 °C. Office workers had a 6.8 °C higher mean CT than other workers, but the difference ranged from 3.8 °C to 10.0 °C from P₁₇ to P₈₃. Sedentary workers had a 2.0 °C higher mean CT than others, but the difference increased from 0.5 °C to 3.0 °C through P₁₇–P₈₃. The mean CT did not differ between sexes, but men had a 1.6–5.0 °C higher CT at P₁₇–P₅₀ (>20 °C) and a 5.0 °C lower CT at P₈₃ (<10 °C). The CT was relatively high at warm (≥10 °C), dry (relative humidity <41%), and drafty (air velocity > 0.35 m/s) worksites. We conclude that office, sedentary, and female workers and those working at warm, dry, and draughty sites are sensitive to the coldest temperatures, whereas male workers are sensitive even to moderate temperatures.

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Series: International journal of environmental research and public health
ISSN: 1661-7827
ISSN-E: 1660-4601
ISSN-L: 1661-7827
Volume: 20
Issue: 3
Article number: 2067
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph20032067
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3142 Public health care science, environmental and occupational health
Copyright information: © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (