University of Oulu

Salla Kälkäjä, Lenka Breugelmans, Johanna Kärkkäinen, Katja Lappalainen. Removal of cobalt and copper from aqueous solutions with sulfonated fruit waste[J]. AIMS Materials Science, 2023, 10(5): 862-875. doi: 10.3934/matersci.2023046

Removal of cobalt and copper from aqueous solutions with sulfonated fruit waste

Saved in:
Author: Kälkäjä, Salla1; Breugelmans, Lenka1; Kärkkäinen, Johanna1;
Organizations: 1Research Unit of Sustainable Chemistry, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4300, FIN-90014, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.9 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: AIMS Press, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-09-22


In this study, orange peel waste was successfully sulfonated with SO₃-pyridine complex in 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid in various reaction conditions. ¹H NMR was used to verify the occurrence of the reaction and to select the most promising material for the adsorption experiments. The degree of substitution of the sulfonated orange peel waste used for cobalt and copper removal was found to be 0.82. It was prepared with the reaction temperature and time of 70 ℃ and 60 min respectively and with the SO₃-pyridine complex to-peel waste ratio of 5:1. The selected material combined with ultrafiltration removed 98% of copper and 91% of cobalt from single metal solutions and 93% of copper and 83% of cobalt from binary metal solution at pH 5 with adsorbent dosage of 12.5 mg/100 mL and initial metal concentration of 8 mg/L. Preliminary experiments were also performed with apple pomace which was sulfonated in the conditions found best for the orange peel waste. The prepared sulfonated apple pomace proved to be almost as effective in cobalt and copper removal as sulfonated orange peel waste, removing 82% of copper and 77% of cobalt from binary metal solution with 12.5 mg/100 mL dosage at pH 5 and an initial metal concentration of 8 mg/L.

see all

Series: AIMS materials science
ISSN: 2372-0468
ISSN-E: 2372-0484
ISSN-L: 2372-0468
Volume: 10
Issue: 5
Pages: 862 - 875
DOI: 10.3934/matersci.2023046
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 114 Physical sciences
216 Materials engineering
Funding: The study was supported by K.H. Renlund foundation, Kone Foundation (Grant number 201903073), Maj and Tor Nessling Foundation (Grant number 201800070), and Oulun läänin talousseuran maataloussäätiö.
Copyright information: © 2023 the Author(s), licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (