University of Oulu

Jalali Shahrood A, Ahrari A, Rossi PM, Klöve B, Torabi Haghighi A. RiTiCE: River Flow Timing Characteristics and Extremes in the Arctic Region. Water. 2023; 15(5):861.

RiTiCE : River flow Timing Characteristics and Extremes in the Arctic region

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Author: Jalali Shahrood, Abolfazl1; Ahrari, Amirhossein1; Rossi, Pekka M.1;
Organizations: 1Water, Energy and Environmental Engineering Research Unit, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 8000 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 3.3 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-09-25


(1) Background: river ice has a significant impact on nearly 66% of rivers in the Northern Hemisphere. Ice builds up during winter when the flow gradually reduces to its lowest level before the spring melt is initiated. Ice-induced floods can happen quickly, posing a risk to infrastructure, hydropower generation, and public safety, in addition to ecological repercussions from the scouring and erosion of the riverbeds.

(2) Methods: we used the annual daily hydrograph to develop a RiTiCE tool that detects the break-up date and develops indices to analyze timing characteristics of extreme flow in the Tana and Tornio Rivers.

(3) Results: the study showed that low-flow periods in two rivers had a significant trend with a confidence level of 95%. Additionally, it was observed that the occurrence date of seasonal 90-day low- and high-flow periods occurred earlier in recent years. Conversely, the Tana River showed a negative trend in its annual minimum flow over the century, which is the opposite of what happened with the Tornio River.

(4) Conclusions: the method can be used to detect the date when the river ice breaks up in a given year, leading to a better understanding of the river ice phenomenon.

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Series: Water
ISSN: 2073-4441
ISSN-E: 2073-4441
ISSN-L: 2073-4441
Volume: 15
Issue: 5
Article number: 861
DOI: 10.3390/w15050861
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 218 Environmental engineering
Funding: This research was funded by the University of Oulu & the Academy of Finland Profi4 TTK Arcl (Grant No. 318930) and Maa- ja vesitekniikan tuki ry (MVTT, Grant No. 43588).
Copyright information: © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (