University of Oulu

Lehtinen, J., Rusanen, A., Kärkkäinen, J. et al. Production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural from apple pomace in deep eutectic solvent. Chem. Pap. (2023).

Production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural from apple pomace in deep eutectic solvent

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Author: Lehtinen, Jatta1; Rusanen, Annu1; Kärkkäinen, Johanna1;
Organizations: 1Research Unit of Sustainable Chemistry, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4300, 90014, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-09-26


Apple pomace is a waste stream produced by fruit processing industry millions of tons annually. It is rich in carbohydrates making it a potential feedstock for the production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), one of the most valuable platform chemicals. In this work, the conversion of apple pomace carbohydrates to HMF was studied in a choline chloride:glycolic acid (1:3) deep eutectic solvent. To prevent undesired side reactions of HMF methyl isobutyl ketone was added to the reaction system as an extractive phase. The effect of reaction conditions, i.e., the amount of water added to the reaction system, the presence of Lewis acid co-catalyst, as well as the reaction temperature and time, on HMF yield were studied. The highest total HMF yield (44.5%) was achieved at 110 °C in 10 min with 15 wt% H₂O, and 0.01 g CrCl₃ as co-catalyst. Without the co-catalyst, the highest achieved HMF yield was 37.3% (120 °C, 20 min, 15 m% H₂O). The results indicated that apple pomace can be used as the feedstock for HMF production but the reaction procedure, especially the extraction process of HMF from deep eutectic solvent needs to be studied further.

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Series: Chemical papers
ISSN: 0366-6352
ISSN-E: 1336-9075
ISSN-L: 0366-6352
Issue: Latest articles
DOI: 10.1007/s11696-023-03055-0
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 116 Chemical sciences
Funding: This work was supported by Kone Foundation (Grant Number 201903073), Maj and Tor Nessling Foundation (Grant Number 201800070), and Oulun läänin talousseuran maataloussäätiö.
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