University of Oulu

Hamada, A., Jaskari, M., Gundgire, T., & Järvenpää, A. (2023). Enhancement and underlying fatigue mechanisms of laser powder bed fusion additive-manufactured 316L stainless steel. In Materials Science and Engineering: A (Vol. 873, p. 145021). Elsevier BV.

Enhancement and underlying fatigue mechanisms of laser powder bed fusion additive-manufactured 316L stainless steel

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Author: Hamada, Atef1; Jaskari, Matias1; Gundgire, Tejas2;
Organizations: 1Kerttu Saalasti Institute, Future Manufacturing Technologies (FMT), University of Oulu, Nivala, FI-85500, Finland
2Materials Science and Environmental Engineering, Tampere University, P.O 589, 33100, Tampere, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 16.7 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-09-26


In this study, the enhancement of additively manufactured (AM) 316L, by annealing, to the fully reversed tension-compression fatigue performance, in terms of fatigue life and fatigue damage, were investigated under two conditions: as-built (AB) and heat-treated (HT) at 900 °C. The underlying fatigue mechanisms were comprehensively characterised through intensive microstructural observations of cyclic-strained microstructures and fracture surfaces using laser confocal scanning microscopy (LCSM) and secondary electron imaging using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The experimental results showed that the fatigue resistance of HT 316L was significantly enhanced by 100% as the fatigue limit was increased from 75 to 150 MPa for AB and HT 316L, respectively. The fatigue cracking mechanism in AB 316L is mainly related to two imperfections of the AM-induced microstructural components: residual stresses, which cause highly localised deformation, and dendritic cellular structures, which possess a weak link in their grain boundaries against crack propagation. Upon heat treatment at 900 °C, the residual stresses and dendritic structure were effectively reduced. Consequently, the fatigue life of AM 316L was significantly enhanced by promoting the formation of high-angle boundaries. More precisely, the cyclic deformation processes in fatigued HT 316L involve persistent slip bands and strain hardening.

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Series: Materials science & engineering. A, Structural materials: properties, microstructure and processing
ISSN: 0921-5093
ISSN-E: 1873-4936
ISSN-L: 0921-5093
Volume: 873
Article number: 145021
DOI: 10.1016/j.msea.2023.145021
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
114 Physical sciences
Funding: The authors express their gratitude to the BUSINESS Finland for funding this research through the “DREAMS” project, No. 4795/31/2021.
Copyright information: © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (