University of Oulu

Santos, H. S., Nguyen, H., Venâncio, F., Ramteke, D., Zevenhoven, R., & Kinnunen, P. (2023). Mechanisms of Mg carbonates precipitation and implications for CO2 capture and utilization/storage. Inorg. Chem. Front., (Vol. 10, Issue 9, pp. 2507–2546). Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC).

Mechanisms of Mg carbonates precipitation and implications for CO₂ capture and utilization/storage

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Author: Santos, Hellen S.1; Nguyen, Hoang1; Venâncio, Fabricio2;
Organizations: 1Fibre and Particle Engineering Research Unit, University of Oulu, Pentti Kaiteran katu 1, 90570 Oulu, Finland
2Development Center of Real Time Chemical Processes and Analyses (NQTR), Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rua Hélio de Almeida, 40, Cidade Universitária da Universidade federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro-RJ, Brazil
3Process and Systems Engineering Laboratory, Åbo Akademi University, Henrikinkatu 2, 20500 Turku, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 5.9 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Royal Society of Chemistry, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-09-26


The mechanisms involved in the natural formations of dolomite (CaMg(CO₃)₂) and magnesite (MgCO₃) have endured as challenging research questions over centuries, being yet a matter under investigation in multiple fields. From a geochemical perspective, it is still unknown why there are recent natural formations of dolomite and magnesite at ambient conditions, and yet most available synthetic routes for precipitating these minerals require high temperatures and/or pressures. The core scientific gap is that even though dolomite and magnesite are the most thermodynamically stable phases among the respective polymorphs/intermediates, their formation is controlled by slow kinetics and their syntheses at ambient conditions remain a challenge. Research findings lead to possible explanations based on the chemical and thermodynamical properties of the system: (i) the high energy barrier for dehydrating the Mg²⁻·6H₂O cations hinders the carbonation of Mg precursors, inducing a preferential formation of the hydrated magnesium carbonates polymorphs, (ii) the intrinsic structural/spatial barrier of the \(\rm{CO}_{3}^{2-}\) groups in the rhombohedral arrangement of dolomite and magnesite shifts the system towards the formation of the respective polymorphs. However, further studies are still needed to enable a clearer understanding of the phenomenon. Recently, the research question at hand gained broader significance due to the relevance of Mg carbonates for routes of carbon capture and utilization/storage, which has been seen as one of the most promising solutions for such processes. The main socio-economic motivations behind such interest on these carbon mineralization methods are the high availability of Mg precursors (from natural sources to industrial waste-streams), the long-term geological storage of CO₂ as magnesite, the possibility of utilizing the carbonate products in construction materials applications, and the relevance of the routes for climate mitigation actions. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms and kinetics of Mg carbonates precipitation is of fundamental importance for many fields, ranging from geology to necessary environmental actions. This review focuses on gathering the main information concerning the geochemical and chemical advances on the dynamics and mechanisms of Mg carbonates precipitation. It aims at providing a comprehensive summary of the developments from the fundamental sciences to the applications of Mg carbonates.

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Series: Inorganic chemistry frontiers
ISSN: 2052-1545
ISSN-E: 2052-1553
ISSN-L: 2052-1545
Volume: 10
Issue: 9
Pages: 2507 - 2546
DOI: 10.1039/d2qi02482a
Type of Publication: A2 Review article in a scientific journal
Field of Science: 116 Chemical sciences
215 Chemical engineering
Funding: This work has been executed as part of the Magnex project(2022–2025), for which H. S. S., R. Z. and P. K. acknowledgethe financial support from the Academy of Finland (fundingdecision 347183). P. K. and H. N. acknowledges financialsupport from Academy of Finland (grant 329477), as well asfrom the University of Oulu & The Academy of Finland Profi5 (326291). D. R. and P. K. acknowledges the funding of theAcademy of Finland (Cemglass project, 322085). The authorsthank Professor Bruce Railsback for providing the Fig. 4 for thepaper, and Dr. Ellina Bernard (Empa, Switzerland) for valuablediscussion to improve our thermodynamic data assessment.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 329477
Detailed Information: 329477 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
322085 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2023. Open Access Article. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported Licence.