University of Oulu

Riikka Haataja, Sami Myllymäki, Ossi Laitinen, Heli Jantunen, Henrikki Liimatainen, Controlling the cell and surface architecture of cellulose nanofiber/PVA/Ti3C2TX MXene hybrid cryogels for optimized permittivity and EMI shielding performance, Materials & Design, Volume 228, 2023, 111855, ISSN 0264-1275,

Controlling the cell and surface architecture of cellulose nanofiber/PVA/Ti₃C₂TX MXene hybrid cryogels for optimized permittivity and EMI shielding performance

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Author: Haataja, Riikka1; Myllymäki, Sami2; Laitinen, Ossi1;
Organizations: 1Fibre and Particle Engineering, P.O. Box 4300, FI-90014, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Microelectronics Research Unit, P.O. Box 4500, FI-90014, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 4.4 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-09-28


Anisotropic, nanoporous structures are promising materials for manipulating the propagation of electromagnetic waves at millimeter and sub-THz frequencies as well as for electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding with rapidly evolving green electronics. In this work, cell and surface architecture of sustainable hybrid cryogels of cellulose nanofibers, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and Ti₃C₂TX MXene was controlled to adjust their GHz and THz dielectric permittivity and EMI shielding performance. Temperature gradient freeze-drying was used to obtain aligned honeycomb and lamellar pore structures with specific surface layer designs. The millimeter wave permittivity varied relative to thickness direction as the side of cryogels that was directly exposed to cold gradient had systematically a higher permittivity. This anisotropy was caused by a thin, smooth outermost surface layer covering the open core structure. The surface designs of all cryogels dominated signal permittivity, and the effects of higher MXene dosages could be offset by the surface layer. Cryogels with dense surface layer containing 70 and 50 wt % of MXene displayed very high average attenuation levels of 52.1 and 37.2 dB, respectively. Overall, the results show that the structural design of porous hybrid material can be used to adjust their EMI shielding performance at GHz and THz frequencies.

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Series: Materials & design
ISSN: 0264-1275
ISSN-E: 1873-4197
ISSN-L: 0264-1275
Volume: 228
Article number: 111855
DOI: 10.1016/j.matdes.2023.111855
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
Funding: The authors acknowledge the financial support from the European Regional Development Fund/Council of Oulu region (Project: “Towards green electronics: Biobased and sustainable applications for the microelectronics”). This research has also been supported by the Academy of Finland, 6G Flagship program under Grant 346208.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 346208
Detailed Information: 346208 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (