University of Oulu

Ahamed M, Pesyridis A, Ahbabi Saray J, Mahmoudzadeh Andwari A, Gharehghani A, Rajoo S. Comparative Assessment of sCO2 Cycles, Optimal ORC, and Thermoelectric Generators for Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery Applications from Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines. Energies. 2023; 16(11):4339.

Comparative assessment of sCO2 cycles, optimal ORC, and thermoelectric generators for exhaust waste heat recovery applications from heavy-duty diesel engines

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Author: Ahamed, Menaz1; Pesyridis, Apostolos1; Saray, Jabraeil Ahbabi2;
Organizations: 1Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Brunel University, London UB8 3PH, UK
2School of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran 16846, Iran
3Machine and Vehicle Design (MVD), Materials and Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
4UTM Centre for Low Carbon Transport (LoCARtic), IVeSE, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor, Malaysia
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 5.8 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-09-28


This study aimed to investigate the potential of supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2), organic Rankine cycle (ORC), and thermoelectric generator (TEG) systems for application in automotive exhaust waste heat recovery (WHR) applications. More specifically, this paper focuses on heavy-duty diesel engines applications such as marine, trucks, and locomotives. The results of the simulations show that sCO2 systems are capable of recovering the highest amount of power from exhaust gases, followed by ORC systems. The sCO2 system recovered 19.5 kW at the point of maximum brake power and 10.1 kW at the point of maximum torque. Similarly, the ORC system recovered 14.7 kW at the point of maximum brake power and 7.9 kW at the point of maximum torque. Furthermore, at a point of low power and torque, the sCO2 system recovered 4.2 kW of power and the ORC system recovered 3.3 kW. The TEG system produced significantly less power (533 W at maximum brake power, 126 W at maximum torque, and 7 W at low power and torque) at all three points of interest due to the low system efficiency in comparison to sCO2 and ORC systems. From the results, it can be concluded that sCO2 and ORC systems have the biggest potential impact in exhaust WHR applications provided the availability of heat and that their level of complexity does not become prohibitive.

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Series: Energies
ISSN: 1996-1073
ISSN-E: 1996-1073
ISSN-L: 1996-1073
Volume: 16
Issue: 11
Article number: 4339
DOI: 10.3390/en16114339
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 214 Mechanical engineering
Copyright information: © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (