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Biswas, A., Karak, B.B., Usoskin, I. et al. Long-Term Modulation of Solar Cycles. Space Sci Rev 219, 19 (2023).

Long-term modulation of solar cycles

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Author: Biswas, Akash1; Karak, Bidya Binay1; Usoskin, Ilya2;
Organizations: 1Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi, 221005, UP, India
2Space Physics and Astronomy Research Unit and Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory, University of Oulu, Oulu, 90014, Finland
3Company, Software & Automation, Brunnenstr. 58, Bad Nauheim, 61231, Germany
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.4 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-09-28


Solar activity has a cyclic nature with the ≈11-year Schwabe cycle dominating its variability on the interannual timescale. However, solar cycles are significantly modulated in length, shape and magnitude, from near-spotless grand minima to very active grand maxima. The ≈400-year-long direct sunspot-number series is inhomogeneous in quality and too short to study robust parameters of long-term solar variability. The cosmogenic-isotope proxy extends the timescale to twelve millennia and provides crucial observational constraints of the long-term solar dynamo modulation. Here, we present a brief up-to-date overview of the long-term variability of solar activity at centennial – millennial timescales. The occurrence of grand minima and maxima is discussed as well as the existing quasi-periodicities such as centennial Gleissberg, 210-year Suess/de Vries and 2400-year Hallstatt cycles. It is shown that the solar cycles contain an important random component and have no clock-like phase locking implying a lack of long-term memory. A brief yet comprehensive review of the theoretical perspectives to explain the observed features in the framework of the dynamo models is presented, including the nonlinearity and stochastic fluctuations in the dynamo. We keep gaining knowledge of the processes driving solar variability with the new data acquainted and new models developed.

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Series: Space science reviews
ISSN: 0038-6308
ISSN-E: 1572-9672
ISSN-L: 0038-6308
Volume: 219
Issue: 3
Article number: 19
DOI: 10.1007/s11214-023-00968-w
Type of Publication: A2 Review article in a scientific journal
Field of Science: 115 Astronomy and space science
Funding: Open Access funding provided by University of Oulu including Oulu University Hospital.
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