University of Oulu

Kamau, S., Oikarainen, A., Kiviniitty, N., Koskenranta, M., Kuivila, H., Tomietto, M., Kanste, O., & Mikkonen, K. (2023). Nurse leaders’ experiences of how culturally and linguistically diverse registered nurses integrate into healthcare settings: An interview study. In International Journal of Nursing Studies (Vol. 146, p. 104559). Elsevier BV.

Nurse leaders' experiences of how culturally and linguistically diverse registered nurses integrate into healthcare settings : an interview study

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Author: Suleiman, Kamau1,2; Oikarainen, Ashlee1; Kiviniitty, Nina1;
Organizations: 1Research Unit of Health Sciences and Technology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Department of Healthcare and Social Services, JAMK University of Applied Sciences, Jyvaskyla, Finland
3Department of Nursing, Midwifery and Healthcare, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK
4Medical Research Center Oulu, Wellbeing Services County of North Ostrobothnia, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.4 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-09-28


Aim: To describe nurse leaders’ experiences of how culturally and linguistically diverse registered nurses integrate into healthcare settings.

Design: A qualitative descriptive study design.

Participants: A total of 13 nurse leaders were recruited from four primary and specialized healthcare organizations in Finland.

Methods: Data were collected through individual semi-structured interviews and analyzed using inductive content analysis.

Results: Nurse leaders’ experiences were categorized into seven main categories as follows: leadership, which concerns a leader’s roles, style, and experience; organizational strategy and culture, which includes structure, policies, and intra-organizational culture; support strategies, including workplace and outside-of-work integration strategies; relationships and interactions, which considers interpersonal relationships and interactions; nurse competence requirements and development, which concerns both organizational and ward level competence demands, and support for competence development; language competence, which concerns challenges relating to language proficiency and development of language competence; and cultural diversity, which considers the importance of competence development brought about through experiences of being in a multicultural workplace.

Conclusions: Culturally and linguistically diverse nurses are important within healthcare systems. These nurses constitute additional human resources, bring diverse experiences and expertise, and add to organizational cultural capital. Nurse leaders require competencies that are suitable for leading a diverse workforce, utilizing its competencies, establishing staff members’ needs, and ensuring their continuous development. Resourcing, planning, and structuring the integration process affects nurses’ experiences of the organizational socialization process.

Impact: The findings of our study can offer guidance to healthcare organizations with regard to structural integration strategies at an institutional level. Leadership and management educators can benefit from the findings towards developing a curriculum that supports leaders’ diversity, equity and inclusion, knowledge management and formal leadership competencies. Finally, nurse leaders may benefit from this study through being more aware towards supporting a multicultural, cohesive, and competent workforce through strong social capital.

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Series: International journal of nursing studies
ISSN: 0020-7489
ISSN-E: 1873-491X
ISSN-L: 0020-7489
Volume: 146
Article number: 104559
DOI: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2023.104559
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 316 Nursing
Funding: No funding.
Dataset Reference: Research participants were assured that no raw data pertaining to this research would be shared without their permission and that data will be held confidential.
Copyright information: © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (