University of Oulu

Sourander A, Silwal S, Surcel H-M, Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki S, Upadhyaya S, McKeague IW, Cheslack-Postava K, Brown AS. Maternal Serum Vitamin B12 during Pregnancy and Offspring Autism Spectrum Disorder. Nutrients. 2023; 15(8):2009.

Maternal serum vitamin B12 during pregnancy and offspring autism spectrum disorder

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Author: Sourander, Andre1,2; Silwal, Sanju1; Surcel, Heljä-Marja3,4;
Organizations: 1Research Centre for Child Psychiatry, INVEST Flagship, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland
2Department of Child Psychiatry, Turku University Hospital, 20521 Turku, Finland
3Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
4Biobank Borealis of Northern Finland, Oulu University Hospital, 90014 Oulu, Finland
5Department of Biostatistics, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, New York, NY 10032, USA
6Department of Psychiatry, New York State Psychiatric Institute, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA
7Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, New York, NY 10032, USA
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.4 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-09-29


This study examined the association between maternal serum vitamin B12 levels during early pregnancy and offspring autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and subtypes. Based on a Finnish national birth cohort, case offspring (n = 1558) born in 1987–2007 and diagnosed with ASD by 2015 were matched with one control on date of birth, sex and place of birth. Maternal vitamin B12 levels were measured during first and early second trimesters of pregnancy. High maternal vitamin B12 levels (≥81th percentile) was associated with increased risk for offspring childhood autism, adjusted odds ratio, 1.59, 95% confidence interval 1.06–2.41 (p = 0.026). No significant associations were observed between maternal vitamin B12 levels and offspring Asperger’s or pervasive developmental disorder/NOS.

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Series: Nutrients
ISSN: 2072-6643
ISSN-E: 2072-6643
ISSN-L: 2072-6643
Volume: 15
Issue: 8
Article number: 2009
DOI: 10.3390/nu15082009
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3123 Gynaecology and paediatrics
Funding: This research was funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences of the National Institutes of Health (Award Number R01ES028125), and the Academy of Finland INVEST Flagship (decision number: 320162) and the Academy of Finland Health from Cohorts and Biobanks Programme (decision number: 308552). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.
Copyright information: © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (