University of Oulu

Glaydson Simoes dos Reis, Palanivel Molaiyan, Chandrasekar M. Subramaniyam, Flaviano García-Alvarado, Andrea Paolella, Helinando Pequeno de Oliveira, Ulla Lassi, Biomass-derived carbon–silicon composites (C@Si) as anodes for lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries: A promising strategy towards long-term cycling stability: A mini review, Electrochemistry Communications, Volume 153, 2023, 107536, ISSN 1388-2481,

Biomass-derived carbon–silicon composites (C@Si) as anodes for lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries : a promising strategy towards long-term cycling stability : a mini review

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Author: dos Reis, Glaydson Simoes1; Molaiyan, Palanivel2,3; Subramaniyam, Chandrasekar M.4;
Organizations: 1Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Biomass Technology Centre, SE-901 83 Umea, Sweden
2Battery Technologies, Center for Low-Emission Transport, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Giefinggasse 2, 1210 Vienna, Austria
3Research Unit of Sustainable Chemistry, University of Oulu, FI-90570, Oulu, Finland
4Chemistry and Biochemistry Dpto., Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad San Pablo-CEU, CEU Universities, Urbanización Montepríncipe, 28668 Boadilla del Monte, Madrid, Spain
5Institute of Materials Science, Federal University of Sao Francisco Valley, Petrolina 56304-205, Brazil
6Kokkola University Consortium Chydenius, University of Jyvaskyla, FI-67100, Kokkola, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 7.4 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-10-02


The global need for high energy density and performing rechargeable batteries has led to the development of high-capacity silicon-based anode materials to meet the energy demands imposed to electrify plug-in vehicles to curtail carbon emissions by 2035. Unfortunately, the high theoretical capacity (4200 mA h g⁻¹) of silicon by (de-)alloy mechanism is limited by its severe volume changes (ΔV ∼ 200% − 400%) during cycling for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), while for sodium-ion batteries (NIBs) remain uncertain, and hence, compositing with carbons (C@Si) represent a promising strategy to enable the aforementioned practical application. The present review outlines the recent progress of biomass-derived Si-carbon composite (C@Si) anodes for LIBs and NIBs. In this perspective, we present different types of biomass precursors, silicon sources, and compositing strategies, and how these impact on the C@Si physicochemical properties and their electrochemical performance are discussed.

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Series: Electrochemistry communications
ISSN: 1388-2481
ISSN-E: 1873-1902
ISSN-L: 1388-2481
Volume: 153
Article number: 107536
DOI: 10.1016/j.elecom.2023.107536
Type of Publication: A2 Review article in a scientific journal
Field of Science: 116 Chemical sciences
Funding: Dr. dos Reis thanks Bio4Energy - a Strategic Research Environment appointed by the Swedish government and the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, for the funding support. The authors also thank EU/Interreg Aurora/GreenBattery project.
Copyright information: © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (