A history of solar activity over millennia
|Author:||Usoskin, Ilya G.1|
1Space Physics and Astronomy Research Unit and Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory (Oulu unit), University of Oulu, 90014, Oulu, Finland
|Online Access:||PDF Full Text (PDF, 7.1 MB)|
|Persistent link:|| http://urn.fi/urn:nbn:fi-fe20231002138054
|Publish Date:|| 2023-10-02
Here we review present knowledge of the long-term behaviour of solar activity on a multi-millennial timescale, as reconstructed using the indirect proxy method. The concept of solar activity is discussed along with an overview of the dedicated indices used to quantify different aspects of variable solar activity, with special emphasis on sunspot numbers. Over long timescales, quantitative information about past solar activity is historically obtained using a method based on indirect proxies, such as cosmogenic isotopes ¹⁴C and ¹⁰Be in natural stratified archives (e.g., tree rings or ice cores). We give a historical overview of the development of the proxy-based method for past solar-activity reconstruction over millennia, as well as a description of the modern state of the art. Special attention is paid to the verification and cross-calibration of reconstructions. It is argued that the method of cosmogenic isotopes makes a solid basis for studies of solar variability in the past on a long timescale (centuries to millennia) during the Holocene (the past ∼12 millennia). A separate section is devoted to reconstructions of extremely rare solar eruptive events in the past, based on both cosmogenic-proxy data in terrestrial and lunar natural archives, as well as statistics of sun-like stars. Finally, the main features of the long-term evolution of solar magnetic activity, including the statistics of grand minima and maxima occurrence, are summarized and their possible implications, especially for solar/stellar dynamo theory, are discussed.
Living reviews in solar physics
|Type of Publication:||
A2 Review article in a scientific journal
|Field of Science:||
115 Astronomy and space science
This work was partly supported by the Academy of Finland (Project ESPERA, No. 321882).
|Academy of Finland Grant Number:||
321882 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
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