University of Oulu

Laura Nauha, Vahid Farrahi, Heidi Jurvelin, Timo Jämsä, Maisa Niemelä, Maarit Kangas & Raija Korpelainen (2023) Comparison and agreement between device-estimated and self-reported sleep periods in adults, Annals of Medicine, 55:1, DOI: 10.1080/07853890.2023.2191001

Comparison and agreement between device-estimated and self-reported sleep periods in adults

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Author: Nauha, Laura1,2,3; Farrahi, Vahid1; Jurvelin, Heidi2,4;
Organizations: 1Research Unit of Health Sciences and Technology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Research Unit of Population Health, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
3Oulu Deaconess Institute Foundation sr., Department of Sports and Exercise Medicine, Oulu, Finland
4Northern Ostrobothnia Hospital District, Oulu, Finland
5Medical Research Center, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
6Infrastructure for Population Studies, Northern Finland Birth Cohorts, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.4 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Informa, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-10-02


Objectives: Discriminating sleep period from accelerometer data remains a challenge despite many studies have adapted 24-h measurement protocols. We aimed to compare and examine the agreement among device-estimated and self-reported bedtime, wake-up time, and sleep periods in a sample of adults.

Materials and methods: Participants (108 adults, 61 females) with an average age of 33.1 (SD 0.4) were asked to wear two wearable devices (Polar Active and Ōura ring) simultaneously and record their bedtime and wake up time using a sleep diary. Sleep periods from Polar Active were detected using an in-lab algorithm, which is openly available. Sleep periods from Ōura ring were generated by commercial Ōura system. Scatter plots, Bland–Altman plots, and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to evaluate the agreement between the methods.

Results: Intraclass correlation coefficient values were above 0.81 for bedtimes and wake-up times between the three methods. In the estimation of sleep period, ICCs ranged from 0.67 (Polar Active vs. sleep diary) to 0.76 (Polar Active vs. Ōura ring). Average difference between Polar Active and Ōura ring was −1.8 min for bedtimes and −2.6 min for wake-up times. Corresponding values between Polar Active and sleep diary were −5.4 and −18.9 min, and between Ōura ring and sleep diary −3.6 min and −16.2 min, respectively.

Conclusion: Results showed a high agreement between Polar Active activity monitor and Ōura ring for sleep period estimation. There was a moderate agreement between self-report and the two devices in estimating bedtime and wake-up time. These findings suggest that potentially wearable devices can be interchangeably used to detect sleep period, but their accuracy remains limited.

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Series: Annals of medicine
ISSN: 0785-3890
ISSN-E: 1365-2060
ISSN-L: 0785-3890
Volume: 55
Issue: 1
Article number: 2191001
DOI: 10.1080/07853890.2023.2191001
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3121 General medicine, internal medicine and other clinical medicine
Funding: NFBC1986 received financial support from European Union QLG1-CT-2000-01643 (EUROBLCS) [grant no. E51560]; NorFA [grant no. 731, 20056, 30167]; USA/NIH 2000 G DF682 [grant no. 50945]. The study has been financially supported by the Ministry of Education and Culture in Finland [grant numbers OKM/86/626/2014, OKM/43/626/2015, OKM/17/626/2016, OKM/54/626/2019, OKM/85/626/2019, OKM/1096/626/2020, OKM/20/626/2022, OKM/76/626/2022]. VF has received funding from DigiHealth-project, a strategic profiling project at the University of Oulu, which is supported by the Academy of Finland (project number 326291).
Copyright information: © 2023 The Author(s). Published by informa UK limited, trading as Taylor & Fancis Group. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution license (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The terms on which this article has been published allow the posting of the Accepted Manuscript in a repository by the author(s) or with their consent.