University of Oulu

Amir Hossein Azadnia, Conor McDaid, Amin Mahmoudzadeh Andwari, Seyed Ehsan Hosseini, Green hydrogen supply chain risk analysis: A european hard-to-abate sectors perspective, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 182, 2023, 113371, ISSN 1364-0321,

Green hydrogen supply chain risk analysis : a european hard-to-abate sectors perspective

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Author: Azadnia, Amir Hossein1; McDaid, Conor2; Mahmoudzadeh Andwari, Amin3;
Organizations: 1School of Business, Maynooth University, Maynooth, Ireland
2Department of Business Studies, Atlantic Technological University, Letterkenny, Ireland
3Machine and Vehicle Design (MVD), Materials and Mechanical Engineering, University of Oulu, FI-90014, Oulu, Finland
4Combustion and Sustainable Energy Laboratory (ComSEL), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Arkansas Tech University, 1811 N Boulder Ave, Russellville, AR, 72801, USA
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 5 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-10-03


Green hydrogen is a tentative solution for the decarbonisation of hard-to-abate sectors such as steel, chemical, cement, and refinery industries. Green hydrogen is a form of hydrogen gas that is produced using renewable energy sources, such as wind or solar power, through a process called electrolysis. The green hydrogen supply chain includes several interconnected entities such as renewable energy providers, electrolysers, distribution facilities, and consumers. Although there have been many studies about green hydrogen, little attention has been devoted to green hydrogen supply chain risk identification and analysis, especially for hard-to-abate sectors in Europe. This research contributes to existing knowledge by identifying and analysing the European region’s green hydrogen supply chain risk factors. Using a Delphi method 7 categories and 43 risk factors are identified based on the green hydrogen supply chain experts’ opinions. The best-worst method is utilised to determine the importance weights of the risk categories and risk factors. High investment of capital for hydrogen production and delivery technology was the highest-ranked risk factor followed by the lack of enough capacity for electrolyser, and policy & regulation development. Several mitigation strategies and policy recommendations are proposed for high-importance risk factors. This study provides novelty in the form of an integrated approach resulting in a scientific ranking of the risk factors for the green hydrogen supply chain. The results of this study provide empirical evidence which corroborates with previous studies that European countries should endeavour to create comprehensive and supportive standards and regulations for green hydrogen supply chain implementation.

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Series: Renewable and sustainable energy reviews
ISSN: 1364-0321
ISSN-E: 1879-0690
ISSN-L: 1364-0321
Volume: 182
Article number: 113371
DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2023.113371
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 1172 Environmental sciences
512 Business and management
Copyright information: © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (