University of Oulu

Ismail Celik, Towards Intelligent-TPACK: An empirical study on teachers’ professional knowledge to ethically integrate artificial intelligence (AI)-based tools into education, Computers in Human Behavior, Volume 138, 2023, 107468, ISSN 0747-5632,

Towards Intelligent-TPACK : an empirical study on teachers’ professional knowledge to ethically integrate artificial intelligence (AI)-based tools into education

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Author: Celik, Ismail1
Organizations: 1Learning and Learning Processes Research Unit, Faculty of Education, University of Oulu, FI-90014, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.1 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2022
Publish Date: 2023-10-03


The affordances of artificial intelligence (AI) have not been totally utilized in education. To effectively integrate AI into education, teachers’ AI-specific technological and pedagogical knowledge is important. Furthermore, due to novel ethical issues caused by Al, teachers also must have the knowledge to assess AI-based decisions. None of the previous studies so far explored teacher knowledge to pedagogically and ethically use AI-based tools. Considering this gap, we first developed a scale to measure the knowledge for instructional AI use based on the technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge (TPACK) framework. We extended TPACK with ethical aspects. Secondly, we built a model to investigate the interplay of TPACK components and ethics. The results indicated that as long as teachers have more knowledge to interact with AI-based tools, they will have a better understanding of the pedagogical contributions of AI. Further, technological knowledge (TK) allows teachers to better assess decisions of AI. However, only TK is not sufficient educational integration of AI-based tools. For teachers to deploy AI in education efficiently, TK is meaningful when it is combined with pedagogical knowledge (PK), reflected in technological pedagogical knowledge (TPK). Given pedagogical and technological affordances of AI-based tools, the current study suggests the Intelligent-TPACK framework.

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Series: Computers in human behavior
ISSN: 0747-5632
ISSN-E: 0747-5632
ISSN-L: 0747-5632
Volume: 138
Article number: 107468
DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.2022.107468
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 516 Educational sciences
113 Computer and information sciences
Copyright information: © 2022 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (