University of Oulu

Junttila, HE, Vaaramo, MM, Huikari, SM, et al. Association of accelerometer-measured physical activity and midlife income: A Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 Study. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2023; 33: 1765-1778. doi:10.1111/sms.14421

Association of accelerometer-measured physical activity and midlife income : a Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 Study

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Author: Junttila, Hanna Elina1,2,3; Vaaramo, Mikko Matias2,3; Huikari, Sanna Martta3;
Organizations: 1Research Unit of Population Health, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Department of Sports and Exercise Medicine, Oulu Deaconess Institute Foundation sr., Oulu, Finland
3Department of Economics, Accounting and Finance, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
4University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä University School of Business and Economics, Jyväskylä, Finland
5Research Unit of Health Sciences and Technology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
6Medical Research Center, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.1 MB)
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Language: English
Published: John Wiley & Sons, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-10-06


This study investigated the association between physical activity (PA) and midlife income. The population-based data comprised employed members of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (N = 2797). Using binned scatterplots and polynomial regressions, we evaluated the association between accelerometer-measured moderate PA (MPA), vigorous PA (VPA), and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) at 46 years old and register-based income at 50 years old. The models were adjusted for sex, marital status, number of children, education, adolescent PA, occupational physical strenuousness, and time preference. We found MPA (p < 0.001), VPA (p < 0.05), and MVPA (p < 0.001) to associate curvilinearly with income. In subgroup analyses, a curvilinear association was found between MPA (p < 0.01) and MVPA (p < 0.01) among those with physically strenuous work, VPA among all females (p < 0.01) and females with physically light work (p < 0.01), and MPA and MVPA among all males and males with physically strenuous work (p < 0.05; p < 0.01; p < 0.05; p < 0.05, respectively) and income. The highest income benefits occurred at PA volumes higher than current PA guidelines. Linear associations between PA and income were found among females for MPA (p < 0.05) and MVPA (p < 0.05), among those with physically light work for MPA (p < 0.05), VPA (p < 0.05), and MVPA (p < 0.05), and among females with physically strenuous work for VPA (p < 0.05). We conclude that PA up to the current recommended level is associated with income, but MPA exceeding 505.4 min/week, VPA exceeding 216.4 min/week, and MVPA exceeding 555.0 min/week might have a negative association with income.

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Series: Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports
ISSN: 0905-7188
ISSN-E: 1600-0838
ISSN-L: 0905-7188
Volume: 33
Issue: 9
Pages: 1765 - 1778
DOI: 10.1111/sms.14421
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 315 Sport and fitness sciences
Funding: NFBC1966 data collection for age 46 received financial support from the University of Oulu (grant no. 24000692), Oulu University Hospital (grant no. 24301140), and the European Regional Development Fund (grant no. 539/2010 A31592). The study has been financially supported by the Ministry of Education and Culture (OKM/86/626/2014, OKM/43/626/2015, OKM/17/626/2016, OKM/54/626/2019, OKM/85/626/2019, OKM/1096/626/2020, OKM/64/626/2020, OKM/1105/626/2020, OKM/91/626/2021, OKM/20/626/2022). V.F. has received funding from DigiHealth-project, a strategic profiling project at the University of Oulu, which is supported by the Academy of Finland (project number 326291). The funding organizations had no role in the study design, the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data, the writing of the article, or the decision to submit it for publication. No funding was received for this manuscript.
Copyright information: © 2023 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science In Sports published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.