University of Oulu

Pekka Ahlholm, Frode Staxrud, Kirsi Sipilä & Pekka Vallittu (2023) Repair bond strength of bulk-fill composites: influence of different primers and direction of debonding stress, Biomaterial Investigations in Dentistry, 10:1, DOI: 10.1080/26415275.2023.2258924

Repair bond strength of bulk-fill composites : influence of different primers and direction of debonding stress

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Author: Ahlholm, Pekka1; Staxrud, Frode2; Sipilä, Kirsi3,4;
Organizations: 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
2Nordic Institute of Dental Materials, NIOM, Oslo, Norway
3Research Unit of Oral Health Sciences, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
4Oral and Maxillofacial Department, Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland
5Department of Biomaterials Science and Turku Clinical Biomaterials Centre, TCBC Institute of Dentistry, University of Turku, Finland
6Welfare Division, City of Turku, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.5 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Informa, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-10-06


Background: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of different adhesion primers on the repair bond strength of bulk-fill resin composite and short-term hydrolytic stability of the repair interface before and after accelerated aging. In addition, direction of debonding stress was examined.

Materials and methods: Bulk-fill substrates were aged in water for 14 days at 37 °C. Smooth resin composite surfaces were prepared for the substrates with a superfine grinding paper (FEPA #500, #1200, #2000). Test specimens were produced by attaching bulk-fill composite to the substrate surfaces, using three different primer/bonding systems. Specimens were aged 24 h at 37 °C in water, or thermal cycled (5–55 °C/5,000 cycles). Subsequently, shear bond strength and micro-tensile bond strength were evaluated. In total there were 60 specimens for the shear bond strength and 60 specimens for the micro-tensile bond strength measurements (30 stored in water 24 h, 30 thermal cycled, n = 10 in each primer/bonding mode).

Results: The mean shear bond strength was 9.1–13.1 MPa after 24 h water storage and 6.9–10.7 MPa after thermal cycling. The mean micro-tensile bond strength was 28.7–45.8 MPa after 24 h water storage and 22.7–37.9 MPa after thermal cycling.

Conclusion: The Ceramic primer (silane containing) seems to perform better than the three-step etch and rinse adhesive or the Composite primer. Shear-type stress had an adverse effect on the repair bond strength of bulk-fill resin composites.

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Series: Biomaterial investigations in dentistry
ISSN: 2641-5275
ISSN-E: 2641-5275
ISSN-L: 2641-5275
Volume: 10
Issue: 1
Article number: 2258924
DOI: 10.1080/26415275.2023.2258924
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 313 Dentistry
Copyright information: © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License (, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The terms on which this article has been published allow the posting of the Accepted Manuscript in a repository by the author(s) or with their consent.