University of Oulu

Tejesvi MV, Turunen J, Salmi S, Reunanen J, Paalanne N, Tapiainen T. Delivery Mode and Perinatal Antibiotics Influence the Infant Gut Bacteriome and Mycobiome: A Network Analysis. Journal of Fungi. 2023; 9(7):718.

Delivery mode and perinatal antibiotics influence the infant gut bacteriome and mycobiome : a network analysis

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Author: Tejesvi, Mysore V.1,2; Turunen, Jenni1,3; Salmi, Sonja3,4,5;
Organizations: 1Research Unit of Clinical Medicine, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
2Ecology and Genetics, Faculty of Science, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
3Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
4Research Unit of Translational Medicine, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
5Disease Networks Research Unit, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
6Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Oulu University Hospital, 90014 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.8 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-10-06


Both exposure to antibiotics at birth and delivery via Caesarean section influence the gut bacteriome’s development in infants. Using 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer sequencing on the Ion Torrent platform, we employed network analysis to investigate the bacterial and fungal interkingdom relationships in the gut microbiome from birth to age 18 months in a prospective cohort study of 140 infants. The gut microbiome at ages six and 18 months revealed distinctive microbial interactions, including both positive and negative associations between bacterial and fungal genera in the gut ecosystem. Perinatal factors, delivery mode and intrapartum antibiotic exposure affected the associations between bacterial and fungal species. In infants exposed and unexposed to perinatal antibiotics, the gut microbiome formed distinct networks for the bacteriome and mycobiome. The fungi Saccharomyces, Trichosporon, Pezoloma, Cystofilobasidium, Rigidoporus and Fomitopsis were strongly associated with exposure to antibiotics at birth. Hyaloscypha, Trichosporon, Fomitopsis and Vishniacozyma were strongly associated with the control group that was not exposed to antibiotics. Five distinct networks were formed according to delivery mode. The present study confirms that bacteria and fungi clearly interact in the infant gut ecosystem. Furthermore, perinatal factors appear to influence the relationships between bacteria and fungi in the developing gut microbiome.

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Series: Journal of fungi
ISSN: 2309-608X
ISSN-E: 2309-608X
ISSN-L: 2309-608X
Volume: 9
Issue: 7
Article number: 718
DOI: 10.3390/jof9070718
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3111 Biomedicine
3123 Gynaecology and paediatrics
Funding: TT, Academy of Finland for Clinical Research grant 2018–2022 and Pediatric Research Foundation grant 2019–2022. MVT, Päivikki and Sakari Sohlberg foundation.
Copyright information: © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (