University of Oulu

Hu, G.-L., Brown, J., Heikkilä, M., Aarvik, L. and Mutanen, M. (2023), Molecular phylogeny, divergence time, biogeography and trends in host plant usage in the agriculturally important tortricid tribe Grapholitini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae: Olethreutinae). Cladistics, 39: 359-381.

Molecular phylogeny, divergence time, biogeography and trends in host plant usage in the agriculturally important tortricid tribe Grapholitini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae: Olethreutinae)

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Author: Hu, Gui-Lin1,2; Brown, John3; Heikkilä, Maria4;
Organizations: 1School of Life Sciences, Institute of Biodiversity and Ecology, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China
2Ecology and Genetics Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
3National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA
4Finnish Museum of Natural History, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
5Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: John Wiley & Sons, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-10-06


The leaf-roller moth tribe Grapholitini comprises about 1200 described species and contains numerous notorious pests of fruits and seeds. The phylogeny of the tribe has been little studied using contemporary methods, and the monophyly of several genera remains questionable. In order to provide a more robust phylogenetic framework for the group, we conducted a multiple-gene phylogenetic analysis of 104 species representing 27 genera of Grapholitini and 29 outgroup species. Divergence time, ancestral area, and host plant usage were also inferred to explore evolutionary trends in the tribe. Our analyses indicate that Larisa and Corticivora, traditionally assigned to Grapholitini, are best excluded from the tribe. After removal of these two genera, the tribe is found to be monophyletic, represented by two major lineages—a Dichrorampha clade and a Cydia clade, the latter of which can be divided into seven generic groups. The genus Grapholita was found to be polyphyletic, comprising three different clades, and we propose three genera to accommodate these groups: Grapholita (sensu stricto), Aspila (formerly a subgenus of Grapholita) and Ephippiphora (formerly considered a synonym of Grapholita). We summarize each generic group, including related genera not included in our analysis, providing morphological, pheromone and food plant characters that support particular branches within the molecular hypotheses. Biogeographical analyses indicate that Grapholitini probably originated in the Nearctic, Afrotropical and Neotropical regions in the Lutetian of the middle Eocene (ca. 44.3 Ma). Our results also indicate that most groups in Grapholitini originated from Fabaceae-feeding monophagous or oligophagous ancestors, and that host plant shifts probably promoted species diversification within the tribe.

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Series: Cladistics
ISSN: 0748-3007
ISSN-E: 1096-0031
ISSN-L: 0748-3007
Volume: 39
Issue: 5
Pages: 359 - 381
DOI: 10.1111/cla.12543
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 1181 Ecology, evolutionary biology
Funding: This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (no. 32100358), the Academy of Finland (no. 314702) and Biodiverse Anthropocenes programme of the University of Oulu.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 314702
Detailed Information: 314702 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2023 The Authors. Cladistics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Willi Hennig Society. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.