Haapanen, M.J., Törmäkangas, T., von Bonsdorff, M.E. et al. Midlife cardiovascular health factors as predictors of retirement age, work-loss years, and years spent in retirement among older businessmen. Sci Rep 13, 16526 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-023-43666-x
Midlife cardiovascular health factors as predictors of retirement age, work-loss years, and years spent in retirement among older businessmen
|Author:||Haapanen, Markus J.1,2,3; Törmäkangas, Timo4; von Bonsdorff, Monika E.5;|
1Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
2Folkhälsan Research Centre, Helsinki, Finland
3Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
4Gerontology Research Center and Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland
5Management and Leadership, Jyväskylä University School of Business and Economics, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland
6Department of Medicine, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
7Centre for Life Course Health Research, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
|Online Access:||PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.2 MB)|
|Persistent link:|| http://urn.fi/urn:nbn:fi-fe20231011139560
|Publish Date:|| 2023-10-11
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of premature retirement. However, the relationship between CVD risk factors and workforce participation is not well known. We studied the relationship between midlife CVD risk, age at retirement, work-loss years, and survival in retirement. Middle-aged Finnish men (initial n = 3490, mean age = 47.8 years) were assessed for CVD risk factors and general health in the 1970s. They worked as business executives and provided information on their retirement status in the year 2000. Survival was followed up to the 9th decade of life with a follow-up of up to 44 years. Work-loss years were calculated as death or retirement occurring at age ≤ 65 years. Smoking, body mass index, and alcohol use were used as covariates, excluding models of CVD risk, which were adjusted for alcohol use only. Higher risk of 10-year fatal CVD was associated with 0.32 more years (relative risk < 1 vs. 1, covariate-adjusted β = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.13, 0.53) of work-loss. Higher risk of 5-year incident (covariate-adjusted time-constant HR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.19, 1.47) and 10-year fatal (covariate-adjusted time-dependent HR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.30, 1.85) CVD in midlife were associated with fewer years spent in retirement. Poorer self-rated health and physical fitness and higher levels of triglycerides were associated with increased hazard of earlier retirement, more work-loss years, and fewer years spent in retirement. Poorer health and greater midlife CVD risk may be associated with earlier exit from the workforce and fewer years spent in retirement. Management of CVD risk in midlife may support people to work longer.
|Type of Publication:||
A1 Journal article – refereed
|Field of Science:||
3121 General medicine, internal medicine and other clinical medicine
MJH is supported by Finska Läkaresällskapet r.f. and Liv och Hälsa r.f. The Academy of Finland supported MBvB with grant 257239 and 349336. The Academy of Finland supported TT with grant 286536. The Academy of Finland supported MEvB with grants 294530, 307114 and 303920. TES is supported by the Helsinki University Hospital, Department of Medicine.
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