University of Oulu

Pylvänäinen, M., Nissilä, J., Visuri, V., Laurila, J., Niemi, A.H., Tuomikoski, S., Paananen, T. and Liedes, T. (2023), Effect of Gas Forming Compounds on the Vibration of a Submerged Lance in Hot Metal Desulfurization. steel research int., 94: 2300072.

Effect of gas forming compounds on the vibration of a submerged lance in hot metal desulfurization

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Author: Pylvänäinen, Mika1; Nissilä, Juhani1; Visuri, Ville-Valtteri2;
Organizations: 1Intelligent Machines and Systems, University of Oulu, PO Box 4200, 90014 Oulu, Finland
2Process Metallurgy Research Unit, University of Oulu, PO Box 4300, 90014 Oulu, Finland
3Civil Engineering Research Unit, University of Oulu, PO Box 4200, 90014 Oulu, Finland
4Process Development, Ironmaking, SSAB Europe Oy, PO Box 93, 92101 Raahe, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: John Wiley & Sons, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-10-12


Hot metal desulfurization is the main process step for removing sulfur in blast furnace-based steelmaking. A desulfurization reagent is pneumatically injected into the hot metal through a submerged lance causing it to vibrate. The aim of this study is to develop a mechanical vibration measurement-based method that can detect changes in the gas-forming properties of the reagent. The detection is performed using Elastic Net regression and eXtreme Gradient Boosting-based classification models the classification performance of which is compared. The lance aging causes changes in its dynamic characteristics, and the disturbing effect of this is removed from the measured data of the lance vibration prior to classification by means of a developed cleaning algorithm. The best classification performance in detecting changes in the gas-forming properties, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.916 and Matthews correlation coefficient of 0.699, is achieved using an Elastic Net regression-based classification model. The results of this work serve as a basis for developing industrial applications in which the effective utilization of the excitation, such as vibrations generated by the gas formation can be utilized for process monitoring and as a soft sensor for predicting the reagent-induced process variance.

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Series: Steel research international
ISSN: 1611-3683
ISSN-E: 1869-344X
ISSN-L: 1611-3683
Volume: 94
Issue: 9
Article number: 2300072
DOI: 10.1002/srin.202300072
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
Funding: This work was conducted within the Platform Economy in Metals Processing (AMET) and Towards Fossil-free Steel (FFS) programs funded by Business Finland. Sami Vares (SSAB Europe Oy) is gratefully acknowledged for his discussions and help with the measurement campaign and analysis. The financial support of Tauno Tönning Foundation is also acknowledged.
Dataset Reference: The data that support the findings of this study are available from the authors. Restrictions apply to the availability of these data, which were used under license for this study.
Copyright information: © 2023 The Authors. Steel Research International published by Wiley-VCH GmbH. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.