Heikkala, E., Oura, P., Ho, E., Ferreira, P., Paananen, M., & Karppinen, J. (2023). Accumulation of long-term diseases is associated with musculoskeletal pain dimensions among middle-aged individuals with musculoskeletal pain. European Journal of Pain, 27, 438–448. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejp.2070
Accumulation of long-term diseases is associated with musculoskeletal pain dimensions among middle-aged individuals with musculoskeletal pain
|Author:||Heikkala, Eveliina1,2,3; Oura, Petteri1,2; Ho, Emma4;|
1Research Unit of Population Health, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu University Hospital, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
3Rovaniemi Health Center, Rovaniemi, Finland
4Charles Perkins Centre Musculoskeletal Hub, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
5Primary Health Care Services, Espoo, Finland
6Rehabilitation Services of South Karelia Social and Health Care District, Lappeenranta, Finland
|Persistent link:|| http://urn.fi/urn:nbn:fi-fe20231012139917
John Wiley & Sons,
|Publish Date:|| 2023-12-22
Background: Long-term diseases often co-occur with musculoskeletal (MSK) pain. In middle-aged individuals with MSK pain, it remains unclear whether an accumulation (two or more) of long-term diseases is associated with MSK pain dimensions, including pain frequency, bothersomeness of pain, pain intensity and number of pain sites.
Methods: This cross-sectional study included data from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 collected in 2012–2014 when the participants were 46 years of age. We included participants who reported having MSK pain during the previous year (collected retrospectively) and provided self-reported information related to MSK pain dimensions, long-term diseases and potential confounders (n = 4469). The association between long-term diseases and pain dimensions was modelled by general linear and logistic regression models, with beta (β) coefficients, odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) being presented. Unadjusted models were followed by models adjusted for sex, educational level and smoking.
Results: The presence of accumulated long-term diseases was associated with over two-fold higher odds of daily pain (adjusted OR 2.6, 95% CI 2.0–3.4) and significantly higher levels of bothersomeness of pain and pain intensity (adjusted β 1.1, 95% CI 0.9–1.4; adjusted β 1.0, 95% CI 0.8–1.1, respectively), relative to the absence of long-term diseases. Females with accumulated long-term diseases had a stronger relationship to number of pain sites than males. Associations between one long-term disease and pain dimensions were significant but smaller in magnitude.
Conclusions: There is a need for a better understanding of the relationships between accumulated long-term diseases and MSK pain.
Significance: This study on middle-aged individuals with musculoskeletal pain showed that the presence of long-term diseases was clearly associated with pain frequency, bothersomeness of pain, pain intensity and number of pain sites. Compared with no long-term diseases, the association between accumulated (two or more) long-term diseases and pain dimensions was stronger than the association between one long-term disease and pain dimensions.
European journal of pain
|Pages:||438 - 448|
|Type of Publication:||
A1 Journal article – refereed
|Field of Science:||
3121 General medicine, internal medicine and other clinical medicine
NFBC1966 received financial support from University of Oulu Grant no. 24000692, Oulu University Hospital Grant no. 24301140, and ERDF European Regional Development Fund Grant no. 539/2010 A31592. The study was supported by the Medical Research Center, Oulu, Finland.
© 2022 European Pain Federation - EFIC. This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Heikkala, E., Oura, P., Ho, E., Ferreira, P., Paananen, M., & Karppinen, J. (2023). Accumulation of long-term diseases is associated with musculoskeletal pain dimensions among middle-aged individuals with musculoskeletal pain. European Journal of Pain, 27, 438–448, which has been published in final form at https://doi.org/10.1002/ejp.2070. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Use of Self-Archived Versions. This article may not be enhanced, enriched or otherwise transformed into a derivative work, without express permission from Wiley or by statutory rights under applicable legislation. Copyright notices must not be removed, obscured or modified. The article must be linked to Wiley’s version of record on Wiley Online Library and any embedding, framing or otherwise making available the article or pages thereof by third parties from platforms, services and websites other than Wiley Online Library must be prohibited.