University of Oulu

W. K. Alsaedi, H. Ahmadi, Z. Khan and D. Grace, "Spectrum Options and Allocations for 6G: A Regulatory and Standardization Review," in IEEE Open Journal of the Communications Society, vol. 4, pp. 1787-1812, 2023, doi: 10.1109/OJCOMS.2023.3301630

Spectrum options and allocations for 6G : a regulatory and standardization review

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Author: Alsaedi, Wijdan K.1,2; Ahmadi, Hamed1,2; Khan, Zaheer3;
Organizations: 1Institute for Safe Autonomy, University of York, York, U.K
2School of Physics Engineering and Technology, University of York, York, U.K
3Centre for Wireless Communications, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 3.5 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-10-13


The upcoming sixth generation (6G) mobile communication system is expected to operate across a wide range of spectrum that includes not only the bands used by previous generations but also higher frequency bands such as millimeter wave (mmWave), which are currently assigned to fifth generation (5G) networks, terahertz (THz), and optical spectrum. By utilizing a broader range of frequencies, it will be possible to support 6G applications with faster data rates, higher capacity, and lower latency. However, the higher frequency bands pose unique challenges such as higher path loss, absorption loss, and engineering difficulties for antennas and radio frequency (RF) circuitry design, which require advanced technologies and innovative solutions. Given that the spectrum is a scarce resource, efficient management is crucial to ensure the most effective exploitation of frequency bands. The spectrum management has evolved over the years, with different approaches being used to assign and utilize frequency bands. In this paper, we provide a review of spectrum management approaches, including their use in awarding 5G spectrum, and explore their expected use in 6G. We then offer a brief overview of spectrum sharing and its role in enabling the efficient use of spectrum resources. The regulations, standardization, features, limitations, and potential use cases of higher frequency bands such as, mmWave, THz, and visible light (VL) are analyzed to provide a comprehensive understanding of the spectrum options available for the upcoming 6G technology.

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Series: IEEE open journal of the Communications Society
ISSN: 2644-125X
ISSN-E: 2644-125X
ISSN-L: 2644-125X
Volume: 4
Pages: 1787 - 1812
DOI: 10.1109/OJCOMS.2023.3301630
Type of Publication: A2 Review article in a scientific journal
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: This work was supported in part by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council United Kingdom (EPSRC), Impact Acceleration Accounts (IAA) (Green Secure and Privacy Aware Wireless Networks for Sustainable Future Connected and Autonomous Systems) under Grant EP/X525856/1.
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2023. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. For more information, see