University of Oulu

Khanali, J., Ghasemi, E., Rashidi, MM. et al. Prevalence of plasma lipid abnormalities and associated risk factors among Iranian adults based on the findings from STEPs survey 2021. Sci Rep 13, 15499 (2023).

Prevalence of plasma lipid abnormalities and associated risk factors among Iranian adults based on the findings from STEPs survey 2021

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Author: Khanali, Javad1,2; Ghasemi, Erfan1; Rashidi, Mohammad-Mahdi1;
Organizations: 1Non-Communicable Diseases Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Population Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Second Floor, No.10, Jalal Al-e-Ahmad Highway, Tehran, 1411713137, Iran
2Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3Tehran Heart Center, Cardiovascular Diseases Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, NL, Canada
5Human Nutrition Program, Department of Human Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA
6Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA
7Center for Life Course Health ResearchFaculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
8Development of Research and Technology Center, Deputy of Research and Technology, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran
9Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.4 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-10-17


The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of lipid abnormalities in Iranian adults by demographic characterization, geographical distribution, and associated risk factors using national and sub-national representative samples of the STEPs 2021 survey in Iran. In this population-based household survey, a total of 18,119 individuals aged over 25 years provided blood samples for biochemical analysis. Dyslipidemia was defined by the presence of at least one of the lipid abnormalities of hypertriglyceridemia (≥ 150 mg/dL), hypercholesterolemia (≥ 200 mg/dL), high LDL-C (≥ 130 mg/dL), and low HDL-C (< 50 mg/dL in women, < 40 mg/dL in men), or self-reported use of lipid-lowering medications. Mixed dyslipidemia was characterized as the coexistence of high LDL-C with at least one of the hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-C. The prevalence of each lipid abnormality was determined by each population strata, and the determinants of abnormal lipid levels were identified using a multiple logistic regression model. The prevalence was 39.7% for hypertriglyceridemia, 21.2% for hypercholesterolemia, 16.4% for high LDL-C, 68.4% for low HDL-C, and 81.0% for dyslipidemia. Hypercholesterolemia and low HDL-C were more prevalent in women, and hypertriglyceridemia was more prevalent in men. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was higher in women (OR = 1.8), obese (OR = 2.8) and overweight (OR = 2.3) persons, those residents in urban areas (OR = 1.1), those with inappropriate physical activity (OR = 1.2), patients with diabetes (OR = 2.7) and hypertension (OR = 1.9), and participants with a history (OR = 1.6) or familial history of CVDs (OR = 1.2). Mixed dyslipidemia prevalence was 13.6% in women and 11.4% in men (P < 0.05). The prevalence of lipid abnormalities was highly heterogeneous among provinces, and East Azarbaijan with 85.3% (81.5–89.1) and Golestan with 68.5% (64.8–72.2) had the highest and lowest prevalence of dyslipidemia, respectively. Although the prevalence of high cholesterol and LDL-C had a descending trend in the 2016–2021 period, the prevalence of dyslipidemia remained unchanged. There are modifiable risk factors associated with dyslipidemia that can be targeted by the primary healthcare system. To modify these risk factors and promote metabolic health in the country, action plans should come to action through a multi-sectoral and collaborative approach.

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Series: Scientific reports
ISSN: 2045-2322
ISSN-E: 2045-2322
ISSN-L: 2045-2322
Volume: 13
Issue: 1
Article number: 15499
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-023-42341-5
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3142 Public health care science, environmental and occupational health
Funding: This study was supported by Ministry of Health and Medical Education and the National Institute for Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran (grant No.241/M/9839). Authors affirm not having entered into an agreement with the funder that may have limited their ability to complete the research as planned and indicate that they have had full control of all primary data.
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