University of Oulu

Heidi Arponen, Janna Waltimo-Sirén, Helena H. Hauta-alus, Mikaela Tuhkiainen, Timo Sorsa, Taina Tervahartiala, Sture Andersson, Outi Mäkitie, Elisa Holmlund-Suila; Effects of a 2-Year Early Childhood Vitamin D3 Intervention on Tooth Enamel and Oral Health at Age 6–7 Years. Horm Res Paediatr 28 August 2023; 96 (4): 385–394.

Effects of a 2-year early childhood vitamin D3 intervention on tooth enamel and oral health at age 6–7 years

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Author: Arponen, Heidi1,2; Waltimo-Sirén, Janna3; Hauta-alus, Helena H.2,4,5,6;
Organizations: 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases, Helsinki University Hospital, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
2Children’s Hospital, Pediatric Research Center, Helsinki University Hospital, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
3Division of Welfare, Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Institute of Dentistry, University of Turku and City of Turku, Turku, Finland
4Research Program for Clinical and Molecular Metabolism, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
5Population Health Unit, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Helsinki, Finland
6PEDEGO Research Unit, MRC Oulu, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
7Department of Oral Diseases, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden
8Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland
9Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet and Clinical Genetics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.3 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Karger, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-10-17


Introduction: The aim of the study was to compare the effects of a 30 µg/day versus 10 µg/day vitamin D supplementation, given during the two first years of life, on oral health at the age of six to 7 years.

Methods: In 2013–2016, we conducted a randomized, double-blinded, clinical trial from age 2 weeks to 2 years of daily vitamin D3 supplementation (10 vs. 30 µg), including 975 healthy infants. For the present follow-up study at age 6–7 years, a sample of 123 children underwent oral examination by investigators blinded to the intervention group. Tooth enamel defect and caries findings, oral rinse active matrix metalloproteinase-8 levels, and tooth eruption were recorded. The intervention groups were compared with χ2 and Mann-Whitney U tests. Associations of the oral health outcomes were evaluated with correlation analysis and logistic regression.

Results: Of the children (median age 7.4 years, 51% boys), 56% belonged to the 30 µg intervention group. Developmental defect of enamel (DDE) was found in 39% of the children in the 10 µg intervention group and in 53% of the 30 µg group (p = 0.104). In total, 94% of children were vitamin D sufficient (25[OH]D ≥50 nmol/L) and 88% had caries-free teeth. No associations were found between vitamin D intervention group in infancy and oral health or the presence of DDE.

Conclusion: Daily supplementation with 10 µg vitamin D3 in the Northern Hemisphere seems adequate in healthy children younger than 2 years in ensuring good oral health at early school age.

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Series: Hormone research in pædiatrics
ISSN: 1663-2818
ISSN-E: 1663-2826
ISSN-L: 1663-2818
Volume: 96
Issue: 4
Pages: 385 - 394
DOI: 10.1159/000528536
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3123 Gynaecology and paediatrics
313 Dentistry
Funding: Supported by Foundation for Pediatric Research in Finland (grant to HA, SA, OM, EHS), Päivikki and Sakari Sohlberg Foundation (grant to HHA), Juho Vainio Foundation (grant to HHA), Finska läkaresällskapet (SA), the Novo Nordisk Foundation (21322, to OM), the Academy of Finland (277843, to OM), the Sigrid Jusélius Foundation (OM) and the Folkhälsan Research Foundation (OM).
Copyright information: © 2022 S. Karger AG, Basel.