University of Oulu

Marzieh Hasanzadeh Saray, Ali Torabi Haghighi, Energy analysis in Water-Energy-Food-Carbon Nexus, Energy Nexus, Volume 11, 2023, 100223, ISSN 2772-4271,

Energy analysis in Water-Energy-Food-Carbon Nexus

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Author: Hasanzadeh Saray, Marzieh1; Torabi Haghighi, Ali1
Organizations: 1Water, Energy and Environmental Engineering Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 4.6 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-10-17


This study evaluated the comprehensive Water-Energy-Food-Carbon Nexus (WEFC) by focusing on energy assessment in northwest Iran. The energy evaluation indices for different products were calculated by estimating the total input and output energies. Multi-objective optimization based on five individual objectives and WEFC Nexus policies was used to identify the optimal land-use allocation of wheat, barley, rapeseed, and sugar beet, silage corn, and potato while minimizing water and energy consumption and CO₂ emissions, and maximizing food production and profit. The results indicate that the suggested framework provides a practical methodology for determining the optimal land-use allocation considering quantitative WEFC Nexus. To increase economic efficiency and reduce energy consumption, agricultural practices and policy recommendations should be adopted, including promoting renewable energy sources, implementing energy-saving technologies, improving fertilizer management, improving crop rotation practices, conservation tillage, and improving water management and adoption of sustainable farming practices. The results allow policymakers to optimize multiple resources and recommend the best resource allocation under recommendation policy, technology, and constraints to achieve sustainable development in agriculture.

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Series: Energy nexus
ISSN: 2772-4271
ISSN-L: 2772-4271
Volume: 11
DOI: 10.1016/
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 218 Environmental engineering
Copyright information: © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (